2021·06·12 Joe Biden Didn’t Win Daily Thread

His Fraudulency

Joe Biteme, properly styled His Fraudulency, continues to infest the White House, we haven’t heard much from the person who should have been declared the victor, and hopium is still being dispensed even as our military appears to have joined the political establishment in knuckling under to the fraud.

One can hope that all is not as it seems.

I’d love to feast on that crow.

Justice Must Be Done.

The prior election must be acknowledged as fraudulent, and steps must be taken to prosecute the fraudsters and restore integrity to the system.

Nothing else matters at this point. Talking about trying again in 2022 or 2024 is hopeless otherwise. Which is not to say one must never talk about this, but rather that one must account for this in ones planning; if fixing the fraud is not part of the plan, you have no plan.

Lawyer Appeasement Section

OK now for the fine print.

This is the WQTH Daily Thread. You know the drill. There’s no Poltical correctness, but civility is a requirement. There are Important Guidelines,  here, with an addendum on 20191110.

We have a new board – called The U Tree – where people can take each other to the woodshed without fear of censorship or moderation.

And remember Wheatie’s Rules:

1. No food fights
2. No running with scissors.
3. If you bring snacks, bring enough for everyone.
4. Zeroth rule of gun safety: Don’t let the government get your guns.
5. Rule one of gun safety: The gun is always loaded.
5a. If you actually want the gun to be loaded, like because you’re checking out a bump in the night, then it’s empty.
6. Rule two of gun safety: Never point the gun at anything you’re not willing to destroy.
7. Rule three: Keep your finger off the trigger until ready to fire.
8. Rule the fourth: Be sure of your target and what is behind it.

(Hmm a few extras seem to have crept in.)

Spot Prices.

Kitco Ask. Last week:

Gold $1893
Silver $27.91
Platinum $1172
Palladium $2890
Rhodium $21,000

This week, markets closed as of 3PM MT.

Gold $1877.40
Silver $28.02
Platinum $1153.00
Palladium $2854.00
Rhodium $22,000.00

Gold was actually just below $1900 at open. The others have changed even less on a percentage basis. Since rhodium didn’t just jump right back up to nearly $30K, I’m thinking this price might not be a short term “spike” (but downward).

(Be advised that if you want to go buy some gold, you will have to pay at least $200 over these spot prices. They represent “paper” gold, not “physical” gold, a lump you can hold in your hand. Incidentally, if you do have a lump of some size, doesn’t it give you a nice warm feeling to heft it?)

The Atom
(Part VII of a Long Series)

Introduction

The general outline of this story is to start off by putting you “in touch” with the state of physics at the beginning of 1895. Physicists were feeling pretty confident that they understood most everything. Sure there were a few loose ends, but they were just loose ends.

1895 marks the year when people began tugging at the loose ends and things unraveled a bit. In the next three years, three major discoveries made it plain there was still a lot to learn at the fundamental level.

Once I’m there I will concentrate on a very, very small object…that ties in with stars, arguably the biggest objects there are (galaxies are basically collections of stars). And we would never have seen this but for those discoveries in the 1890s.

It’s such a long story I decided to break it down into pieces, and this is the seventh of those pieces. (Though to be sure this series seems to have taken on a life of its own.)

And here is the caveat: I will be explaining, at first, what the scientific consensus was in 1895. So much of what I have to say is out of date, and I know it…but going past it would be a spoiler. So I’d appreciate not being “corrected” in the comments when I say things like “mass is conserved.” I know that that isn’t considered true any more, but the point is in 1895 we didn’t know that. I will get there in due time. (On the other hand, if I do misrepresent the state of understanding as it was in 1895, I do want to know it.)

Also, to avoid getting bogged down in Spockian numbers specified to nine decimal places, I’m going to round a lot of things off. I used 9.8 kg m/s2 in Part for a number that’s actually closer to 9.80665, for instance, similarly for the number 32. In fact, I’ll be rounding off a lot today.

NOTE: A YUUUGE debt is owed here to “Discovery of the Elements,” 2nd edition, by James L. Marshall.

Why Talk About Atoms?

This post is going to seem like it actually is about chemistry, and in many ways it is.

However, physics and chemistry are right next door to each other. Physics is the most fundamental of the sciences, the others build on it, with chemistry being the one directly “on top” of the physics foundation. Thus it’s the major branch of science most directly connected to physics. And you’ll see some of that here. (Of course, where we divide sciences into major branches is largely arbitrary. For example, if there were a major branch for electricity and magnetism, it’d be tied even closer to physics than chemistry is, but in fact, E&M is considered a branch of physics rather than a major science in its own right.)

Phlogiston

Our story begins with Georg Ernest Stahl, in the 1600s. Before he came on the scene, what we now think of as chemistry was still under the sway of the alchemists, many of whom were trying to turn lead (and other base metals) into gold.

They had a basic theory of chemistry, to wit that the world was made of exactly four basic substances, earth, water, air, and fire (and in some cases they believed the heavens were made out of “aether”, something not encountered “down here”). Everything we see around us, they maintained, was some sort of mixture of these basic elements. So to change lead into gold, all one needed to do was change the mixture, removing some things and adding others.

Of course, that never came to anything, but during all their efforts they amassed a huge amount of knowledge about what would happen if you mixed certain things together and treated them in certain ways.

For example you could mix potash and sulphur, and create liver of sulphur. But you could also create liver of sulphur by heating vitriolated tartar together with charcoal.

(I use the older names here so that you can see how totally arbitrary this must have seemed to the people who used those names.)

So what we had by the 1600s was a vast collection of information like this, with no real way to connect the pieces and understand what was really going on.

And this is where Georg Ernest Stahl comes in.

He was the first to put forward a theory that seemed to tie this disparate trivia together. The theory could also be used to make predictions about what would happen with previoiusly untried processes. This would help tremendously if the theory were right, but would also, if the theory were wrong, allow it to be discredited because it had made a specific prediction that hadn’t come to pass.

(A lot of things people believe are “unfalsifiable.” That means there’s no way, even in principle to disprove it even if it’s wrong. Most real “conspiracy theories” are like this, actually; if any evidence is turned up against the theory, the advocates will dismiss it as falsified as part of the cover up. If your hypothesis can explain away anything this way, and you can disregard evidence against your hypothesis, you can’t be convinced it’s wrong, and the theory itself is worthless since it can be neither proved or disproved, and can make no meaningful predictions, either–any outcome can be made to fit the theory, so any outcome is possible if the theory is true.)

So here it is: Stahl noted some similarities between combustion (burning things), calcining (rust, corrosion), and respiration (both plant and animal “breathing”). He concluded that at a very basic level three of these four were the same thing–he excepted plant respiration, but claimed that it was fundamentally animal respiration in reverse.

His proposed explanation for all of these processes? That wood, when it burns, and metal when it rusts, and animals when they breathe, all give off a substance called phlogiston. Thus, the calx of some metal, say iron rust was a purer substance than the metal, because the metal had given up phlogiston to turn into the rust. Similarly, when you burned a log you could even hear it hiss as the plogiston was released.

The ancients had believed that fire, once released, went up into the heavens; Stalh believed that plogiston combined with the atmosphere, to form phlogisticated air.

Plants would simply recapture the phlogiston from the air, turning the air into dephlogisticated air, and incorporate it into their tissues, forming a sort of closed cycle, ready to be burned again, or eaten by an animal that would breathe and release the phlogiston into the atmosphere once again.

OK, there were a couple of simple objections to this. Wood, when burned would lose weight, but metals, when rusting, gained weight. But it was readily noted that burning wood released a lot of smoke, which surely weighed something, and it was presumed there was a weight gain there, too (which in fact is the case). It was proposed, therefore, that phlogiston had negative weight. This was a concrete prediction of the theory, that phlogiston, if isolated, would have what amounted to antigravity, or as they called it back then, levity.

Chemists made a bunch of progress in the 1770s towards proving this theory and bringing some order to chemistry, much like Newton had done with mechanics a century earlier.

Unfortunately things fell apart under the weight of too much evidence. Too much special pleading had to occur to explain away anomalies.

Phlogisticated air was produced by Daniel Rutherford in 1772. He would burn a candle in a closed container, let a mouse asphyxiate (which took about 15 minutes) in a closed container, and also could get metal to calcine in a closed container. The resultant gas from one of these processes (say the burning candle) could be tested in another (the mouse) and fail to support the new process as well, which gave him a warm fuzzy that all three gases were actually the same thing; air loaded to capacity with phlogiston.

Dephlogisticated air was prepareed by Scheele and Priestly separately but almost simultaneously in 1774. Scheele heated calx of mercury and collected the gas that came out; that gas would support combustion and respiration quite nicely so clearly it was air with no phlogiston in it at all.

Phlogiston was isolated by Henry Cavendish. This is the same Henry Cavendish who determined the value of the gravitational constant G over in physics land, as described in Part I of this series.

Cavendish added Mars (iron) to oil of vitriol to produce a gas which he collected in a bladder. The bladder actually floated in the air, which meant that he likely had phlogiston (which was supposed to have negative weight, after all), and the gas was also very combustible; logical for something released during burning. This new gas was “inflammable air” and had also been identified as being phlogiston.

So this looked very good for Stahl’s theory! Equations consistent with it could be written and phlogiston had indeed turned out to have negative weight.

We could even demonstrate that sulphur was oil of vitriol mixed with phlogiston, by use of those first two reactions I mentioned at the very beginning of this story.

By looking at all of this, it was clear that metals were compounds, and so was sulphur. The calxes and oil of vitriol were most likely pure substances, elements, irreducible to anything more simple.

Along comes Anoine Lavoisier. He made a fairly obvious prediction. Reacting phlogiston/inflammable air with dephlogisticated air should produce phlogisticated air.

It was already known that inflammable air was quite combustible, so Lavoisier built a very sturdy chamber for the reaction, one that would withstand the stress of the kaboom! and retain the product.

So then he did it, using a spark to touch off the reaction, and on examining the result he did not find phlogisticated air. Instead, he found the element water. And nothing else!

Think about that. There were other reactions that produced elements. But they always also produced something else. Starting with zinc and de-phlogisticated air, you could get the zinc calx element, but phlogisticated air would also be produced. In other words, if you start with a non element and turn it into an element, part of the original compound has to go somewhere else.

(zinc calx + phlogiston) + dephlogisticated air ->
zinc calx + phlogisticated air.

You can’t start with those sorts of beginning ingredient and end up with only an element afterwars. Whatever you broke away from the element has to have gone somewhere, in this case into the air to phlogisticate it.

So what’s going on here? How do you combine things and only get an element?

Fortunately, Lavoisier was a genius, and he did figure it out. By overturning every assumption that had been made.

He figured that water was a compound, a compound of inflammable air and dephlogisticated air. Up until this point water was presumed to be an element.

And that there was no such thing as phlogiston, and everything understood up to then was backwards.

If you understand modern chemistry at all, everything I’ve described up until now should seem inverted, like phlogiston is filling the role of oxygen, but in reverse–it is leaving things as they burn or rust, instead of combining with them.

But now, thanks to Lavoisier, try the new words “oxygen” for “dephlogisticated air” and “hydrogen” for “phlogiston” and “nitrogen” for “phlogisticated air.” These, Lavoisier realized are all elements; and air was a mixture of nitrogen and oxygen.

The metals weren’t compounds of something plus a “calx,” rather the calx was a compound of the metal and oxygen. And oil of vitriol was a compound of sulphur, not the other way around. (In fact today, oil of vitriol is called “sulphuric acid,” suitable for imbibing by your favorite Deep Stater.)

After several years of effort, Lavoisier was able to correctly identify 31 substances as elements, two still bear the names he gave to them (hydrogen and oxygen). Seven of these elements had not been isolated yet, but he figured they were part of a known compound; those are chlorine, fluorine, boron, calcium, magnesium, barium, and silicon.

Oddly he didn’t realize that potash and soda were similar; he thought they were compounds of ammonium. And he thought that heat and light were elements. (This was corrected by Count Rumford, who married Lavoisier’s widow.)

All in all, mistakes aside, this is a staggering amount of insight.

But he went further. In collaboration with three other chemists, he devised the naming system we use today. “Sodium chloride” is named according to this system; it indicates a compound of the two elements, sodium and chlorine. Gone was “flowers of zinc” to be replaced by “zinc oxide.” “Liver of sulphur” was now “potassium sulfide.” “Corrosive icy oil of tin” is now “stannic chloride.” And on and on, the new names reflecting the actual elemental composition. Most of the old names are now forgotten, but every once in a while you still hear them.

And now that elements were correctly identified, a lot of real progress could be made, because the whole mental map of what was going on was no longer upside-down and inside-out.

This is why Lavoisier is called “the Father of Chemistry.”

He was also a tax collector for Louis XVI. This made him well versed in accounting, which showed in his meticulous measuring of the masses of everything in reactions, to make sure the books balanced. He had demonstrated that mass was conserved in all chemical reactions.

Unfortunately his day job put his head into the guillotine in 1792 during the French Revolution. As Comte de Joseph-Louis Lagrange put it, “It required but a moment to cut off his head and perhaps a hundred years will not suffice to produce another like it.”

It took a long time for Lavoisier’s new chemistry to be accepted in Germany (the homeland of Stahl) and the United Kingdom was resistant as well. Politics had some influence on science back then too. But in England, it didn’t take too long. Because John Dalton would soon be hard at work, and so would Humphry Davy. These two parts happen almost simultaneously.

John Dalton

John Dalton made measurements of the masses of all reactants in many different reactions and came to the realization that elements reacted in certain fixed proportions by mass. (He managed this in spite of not being nearly as proficient at measurement as Lavoisier had been.) For example one unit of hydrogen appeared to react with 5.66 units of oxygen to form water. On the basis of this, he speculated that elements consisted of small minimum units, which he named atoms from Greek atomos, “can’t be cut.” This revived a speculation than had been dormant for over two thousand years, since Democritus who lived roughly around 400 BCE. He began publishing his work in 1806.

Dalton determined, very roughly, a lot of these ratios, and the ratios became what today are called “relative atomic masses.” The are the masses of atoms, relative to some (back then) unknown reference value. (In casual speech they are “atomic weights” and sometimes “atomic masses” though the latter can be confused with the actual mass of an atom in kilograms. Both “relative atomic mass” and “atomic weight” are officially sanctioned terms, though “atomic weight” seems to be falling out of favor. After all weight is actually a misnomer.)

Dalton carefully refined his table of atomic weights, but even his last effort is barely recognizable today. He had finally measured the oxygen:hydrogen ratio as 7, which was still not right, even given some of the bad assumptions he was making.

A lot of very basic (to us today) concepts were missing from this endeavour. It wasn’t clear that hydrogen and oxygen are never present as single atoms, but rather they’d form a compound with themselves, two hydrogen (or oxygen) atoms pairing off as a molecule of H2 or O2. Compounded atoms got the name “molecule.” This was true of nitrogen as well.

(On the subject of these diatomic elements, my high school chemistry teacher used to say that those elements whose names end in G, E, N or I, N, E were the “fags of the chemical world” because they’d form molecules with themselves. H2, O2, N2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2 [for hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine, respectively]. I can guarantee you no high school teacher says that today. In any case, hydrogen has one bond, and shares it with the other hydrogen atom, oxygen has two bonds, and so is double bonded to the other oxygen atom in the molecule, nitrogen has three and triple-bonds. The “-ine” elements are all one bond each and are called, collectively, halogens.)

Also missing was the concept of valence; Dalton didn’t realize that it was possible for one atom to combine with more than one other atom, or even two or three times to the same other atom, and that different elements followed different rules in regards to this. Thus he never understood that water was H2O, not just HO. That caused him to understate oxygen’s atomic weight by a factor of two. He should have got oxygen = 8 on the basis of this misunderstanding, but he never quite got there.

All this emphasis I place on what he did not understand might lead you to think I am dumping on Dalton. No, absolutely not! Even with the things he didn’t know, he had made a huge conceptual leap, which (not incidentally) was needed before we could learn more. Ironically, the things he got right eventually made it possible for us to see his mistakes.

Amadeo Avogadro

Dalton’s misunderstanding of valence was corrected in part due to Amadeo Avogadro, who noted that when working with gases, their volume appeared to match these ratios. For instance a certain volume of hydrogen weighed two grams, matching its molecular weight; the same volume of oxygen would weigh 32 grams, matching O2‘s molecular weight. And when reacting, some volume of oxygen would combine with twice that volume of hydrogen to form water, in accordance with the H2O molecular formula for water, and not leave anything left over. Avogadro showed that at a given temperature and pressure, a certain volume of gas would contain the same number of molecules, regardless of which gas it was. Hydrogen, oxygen, Eric Swalwell’s most recent meal, it was all the same number of molecules per liter.

Today we know that 22.4 liters of gas at standard temperature (25 C) and pressure (1 atmosphere) will weigh, in grams, its molecular weight. That much H2 weighs two grams, that much oxygen, O2, weighs 32g.

Chemists found this useful, and defined a new concept, the “gram molecular weight.” Which got abbreviated “mole” and got the symbol mol. It’s now an official “base unit” of the modern International (Metric) System, alongside the second, the meter, the kilogram, and the ampere. (There are only two others, and you are about to meet one of those as well.) It’s basically the number of molecules it takes so that the numerical weight of the sample, in grams, is the same as its atomic weight. This is the same number for all pure substances, compounds or elements. We just didn’t know, then, what that number was, but that didn’t mean chemists couldn’t weigh out thirteen moles of copper sulfate when they wanted to.

Even though we didn’t know what the number was, or (equivalently) had no idea how much atoms and molecules actually weighed in grams or kilograms, Avogadro gets the credit for inventing the concept, and that number (now very well known today) is called Avogadro’s number in his honor and is symbolized by NA.

A good set of values for atomic weight became absolutely vital for chemistry. The unsung heroes of chemistry during the 1800s were those who put in years of exacting effort refining atomic weights. Their work wasn’t glamorous, and never would have won them Nobel prizes (if those had existed back then), but chemists knew these guys were doing something Very Important. The biggest “name” here was Jons Jakob Berzelius (who also discovered selenium and cerium oxide), who produced exceedingly good figures by 1826. And in fact people continue to refine the atomic weights, taking into account all sorts of factors we had no notion of until the 20th century.

It became apparent very quickly that atomic weights weren’t quite neat integers. It’s easy enough to quote that hydrogen’s atomic weight is one and oxygen’s is 16, but in fact both numbers are very, very slightly off from those integers, and this was not an artifact of inaccurate measurement. Rather, it’s the way things really are. This must have been maddening for chemists (Why be just a little way off from clean integer ratios? Why not a lot more off from them? It’s like mother nature was shooting at a target and just barely missed the bullseye. Why?)

A pause for an example of using moles.

Chemists making a compound could decide how many moles of it they wanted, for example, say, ten moles. Let’s say our goal is to start with hydrogen and oxygen and to produce ten moles of water. You start out with this idea of the equation for the reaction. It’s really a sort of shorthand recipe.

H2 + O2 -> H2O

Ten moles of H2O is going to contain ten moles of oxygen atoms, and twenty moles of hydrogen atoms, because there are two hydrogen atoms in every one water molecule.

But before you rush off and put 30 moles of gas into a container, there’s one thing to remember. The oxygen going into the reaction is not oxygen atoms, it’s oxygen molecules. And each of those contains two oxygen atoms. So you need five moles, not ten, of O2. And by the same token you need ten moles, not twenty, of H2.

So really, to include the quantities, we should write the equation like this:

10H2 + 5O2 -> 10H2O

But let’s sanity check it. Let’s see if mass is conserved.

Hydrogen’s atomic weight is one. Molecular hydrogen therefore has a molecular weight of 2. So ten moles of this is 20 grams of hydrogen.

Oxygen’s atomic weight is sixteen. Molecular oxygen therefore has a molecular weight of 32. So five moles of this is 160 grams of oxygen.

The total weight of all the ingrediens is 180 grams.

Over on the right hand side, the result is ten moles of water. Water, of course, has a molecular weight of eighteen (one + one + sixteen), and ten moles of it is therefore 180 grams.

The equation seems to balance.

Of course that equation only looks like it does because our goal was ten moles of water. To be generally useful it has to be reduced by dividing through by the lowest common factor. In this case that’s 5, so:

2H2 + O2 -> 2H2O

(One of the things taught in chemistry class is how to balance these equations, like we just did here. In some cases it can get very complicated.)

Any future chemist can scale this up or down, just like working with a recipe that doesn’t make enough (or makes too much) food for your needs.

Let me again emphasize that at this point we didn’t know the mass of any atoms and molecules, and therefore we didn’t know how many were in a mole. But it didn’t matter, we knew the ratios of those masses and could just use moles to keep those ratios consistent.

One last note about atomic weight before we move on.

Because oxygen reacts with a lot of things, and because (unless you are dealing with a gas) you pretty much have to be able to react with something to measure its atomic weight it was convenient to set oxygen’s atomic weight to exactly sixteen, and measure everything in terms of that. So hydrogen’s atomic weight was 1.008 (that’s the best number as of 1949). Much later on we ended up modifying this convention just a tiny bit.

More on Gases…and Heat

As mentioned, a mole of any gas will occupy 22.4 liters at standard temperature and pressure. What happens if you alter one of these parameters?

If you halve the volume, yet keep the temperature constant, you will double the pressure exerted by the gas.

On the other hand, if you double the temperature, either the volume will double and the pressure stays the same or vice versa.

wait. FULL STOP.

What does it mean to double the temperature? If it’s 20° Celsius, is 40° Celsius twice as hot? Really? Well, 20° C is 68 F, and 40° C is 104 F. But 104 isn’t two times 68.

So it’s only twice as hot if you’re using a Celsius thermometer.

Well, that sure seems stupid, doesn’t it?

We don’t have this problem when doubling mass or halving a length or quadrupling an electric current or waiting for the end of the Biden administration, even if it seems six times longer than it is.

That’s because we can tell what zero mass (or length, or current) is. It’s pretty obvious; if you have none of something, its mass is 0 kg. So doubling the 5 in “5 kg” gives you “10 kg” and by golly, that really is twice as much.

The problem with temperature is that 0° F or 0° C isn’t really “no temperature” or “no heat” in any meaningful sense. What we need to do is to first realize that there’s actually a true zero point to temperature, then figure what it is. Then, it becomes possible to measure with respect to it.

We’re looking to determine absolute zero.

And it turns out we’re already on the right path. We don’t know what half or double the temperature is, but we can figure it out by cooling, or heating the gas until its pressure halves or doubles. And once we know that (just making up numbers) that 559° F is double the temperature of 50° F, we can backtrack and figure out what the real zero point is.

Chemists/physicists did something very much like this. They had to be careful not to let the gas liquefy (all bets are off if that happens), but it turns out that when they plotted the lines, an “ideal” gas would hit zero volume and pressure at -273.15° C, or about -459° F. This is absolute zero.

(I lied. I didn’t just make those numbers up. 50° F is 509° Fahrenheit degrees above absolute zero, so 509 + 50° F = 559° F is twice as hot.)

And chemists and physicists both use a temperature scale that starts at this point, with degree sizes the same as for Celsius (9/5 of a degree Fahrenheit). This is called the kelvin, after Lord Kelvin, an important figure in the history of thermodynamics. In fact it’s not even called “degrees kelvin,” it’s just “kelvins.” This is the sixth of the basic metric units.

300 K works out to 80.33° F, just to help you get a feel for it. And scientists consistently work in kelvins, everything from chemists having to figure out when a material will melt or boil, or how hot something must get before it will react, to astronomers telling you the temperature of Pluto, or Sirius.

As the 1800s wore on, it turned out that, deep down, the temperature of an object was directly related to the average kinetic energy of the molecules inside it. The total energy of the heat in the object is of course the sum of all the molecules’ kinetic energy, or in essence the total kinetic energy inside the object. But now we knew what heat was…it’s actually a manifestation of kinetic energy. And this is why when friction occurs objects heat up; the energy of motion is being transferred to the individual molecules. The object as a whole slows down, but the molecules start moving around with respect to each other (picking up the momentum the object loses, remember momentum is conserved) and the object heats up.

Humphry Davy

We now turn to the other thing that was going on starting in the 1800s (this time I don’t mean the century but rather the “zero years” of that first decade). I mentioned this in passing in part IV.

Sir Humphry Davy (1778-1829) exploited the voltaic pile (battery) to bust apart molecules that had been impervious to other methods (a typical method was to try to bring oxygen in to grab one constituent of a molecule, since oxygen is very good at “cutting in”).

The basic procedure was to prepare a solution of whatever it was you wanted to break apart, stick two electrodes into the solution, connect them to a battery, and wait for the electricity to do the work. One part of the molecule would collect around the positive electrode and the other part around the negative electrode.

Apparently, moving an electric charge around could induce at least some molecules to break apart.

Convinced that potash contained an undiscovered element (in spite of Lavoisier not thinking so), Davy made up a solution of it in water, hooked up the electrodes, and got hydrogen and oxygen. Whoops. He was busting up the water. But he needed a liquid for this to work. So he tried molten potash, and that worked like gangbusters. There were flames at the negative electrode. Taking a closer look, there were globules of silvery metal forming there, which would immediately burst into flame, just from contact with the air.

Davy was able to capture some of these globules before they self-torched and tried putting them in water. They’d race around the surface of the water and burst into lavender light. It turned out that the water was being broken apart into hydrogen and hydroxide (OH) and the hydroxide was reacting with the metal, to form KOH (potash lye). The hydrogen, on the other hand, was hot enough to spontaneously combust to form water vapor. Whatever this new stuff was, water would burn it!

According to witnesses, Davy danced around the laboratory with joy. He had just discovered potassium.

He tried soda (no, not coca cola). It took more voltage (electrical potential, the push) but he isolated sodium in short order. Sodium, of course is now famous for pyrotechnics when put into water. (It’s very, very dangerous, by the way, to simply throw a piece of sodium into a lake–a jet of hot, fresh soda lye (NaOH) might just shoot out the way the sodium came, land on you and blind you. However, I can promise Barry Obola that he is so anointed that he will come to no harm whatsoever if he does this. Trust me, Barry.)

Davy also nabbed magnesium, calcium, strontium and barium, elements that Lavoisier had identified as being there without them having been isolated. With the exception of magnesium, these would all spontaneously react with air and moisture energetically. Magnesium, the one metal that didn’t, was barely a successful find; it turned out a more successful method of isolating it was to react one of its compounds with pure sodium, so as it happens Davy was a key part of that effort anyway.

Davy had even more trouble with lithium; only small, wretchedly contaminated samples resulted from his efforts, and indeed it wasn’t until 1855 that good samples of lithium were isolated.

Michael Faraday (again)

All this was in 1807-1808, but Davy wasn’t done contributing to this story.

In 1813 he hired Michael Faraday. Yes, that Michael Faraday. The Michael Faraday, who alongside Newton and Maxwell, had his picture hung in Albert Einstein’s office. The Michael Faraday from last week that you were supposed to thank the next time you flipped a light switch (did you?).

Given that Faraday never had formal education, and learned all his science on the job, Davy did the world a tremendous favor giving him a chance. (So thank him, too, the next time you flip a light switch.)

As if unifying electricity and magnetism and laying the groundwork for modern civilization weren’t enough, Faraday also investigated electrolysis, following in Davy’s footsteps. In fact, he invented the words “anode,” “cathode,” “ion” and “electrode.”

Faraday is responsible for the discovery that in order to break a single bond, like say that between sodium and chlorine in salt, with electrolysis, a certain amount of electrical charge has to be supplied. And this number was the same per bond, per mol. This is, in fact, Faraday’s Constant.

To break one mole of single bond, it required 96,485.3 colombs. (Remember, once again, how humongous an electric charge one coulomb is.)

If it was a double bond, it would take twice as much charge.

This alone should be enough to convince anyone that there is a lot of electrical charge in simple, ordinary materials. We never noticed because it’s almost always perfectly balanced. When it falls out of balance, your sheets stick to each other coming out of the drier, your cat gets covered in packing peanuts, balloons pull your hair into a mess, and so on. On the plus side, if you can get the electrical fluid to move (without causing a huge imbalance) you can get it to work; a lot of work.

You could even think of this number as a mole of electric charge, since it operated to break one mol of single bonds (or half a mol of double bonds).

Chemistry, it was becoming quite apparent, is actually an electrical thing. Remember when I said, last time, that electricity is responsible for every physical phenomenon you see around you, except for gravity? That included things like why it’s hard to break rocks (electrical forces keep the rock bonded to itself), why water takes as much heat as it does to boil, anything having to do with light, and on and on. It includes things set on fire. It includes the question of why you and I aren’t just loose piles of disorganized atoms.

Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleyev

(A quick linguistic note. Mendeleyev’s name is properly spelt: Дмитрий Иванович Менделеев, but I suspect most of my readers can’t read Cyrillic, so it’s necessary to transliterate his name into the Latin alphabet. Usually when this is done, the “y” is not included, but I think it’s better to use the y, because it is most definitely pronounced when English speakers pronounce his name (and for that matter is implicit in the second of the pair of еs in the original Russian). Those in the know know it’s “men-del-A-yev” rather than “men-del EVE” (it’s probably a way of hazing noob chemistry students who don’t know the trick and blunder) but the most-common transliteration doesn’t reflect this. Since the transliteration is supposed to be helpful, I decided to use the more-helpful, less-common alternative here.)

I started this article by pointing out that chemistry was a collection of unsorted trivia until Lavoisier, who finally got us on the right track to figuring out what substances were compounds, and which ones were elements, the basic building blocks of everything you can drop on your foot.

But Lavoisier knew of thirty one elements. By 1869 there were sixty three of them (including one mistake, didymium, that was really two elements that today we call praseodymium and neodymium).

This is an awful lot of different basic building blocks, isn’t it?

There seemed no rhyme or reason to it. Most of their masses were almost, but maddeningly not quite, integers, but even ignoring the tiny fractions, the numbers were chaotic. In order, hydrogen 1, lithium 7, beryllium 9.4, boron 11, carbon 12, nitrogen 14, oxygen 16, fluorine 19, sodium 23, magnesium 24 for the first ten.

What went into the holes? Was there something with an atomic weight of almost-but-not-quite 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6? What was up with beryllium?

Some chemists had begun to notice that some elements seemed chemically similar, for example, fluorine, chlorine and bromine, or copper, silver and gold, or chromium, molybdenum and tungsten. There seemed to be a lot of “triads” of elements like this.

But it was Dmitri Mendeleyev (1834-1907) who was the first to perceive the entire pattern…and to put a lot of confidence into it.

He sorted the elements according how they combined with oxygen. The first group (hydrogen, lithium, sodium, combined 2-1, two atoms of the element to one of oxygen. Each of these took up one of oxygen’s two bonds. You can write a generic formula, R2O for this. And to make the pattern clear, figure that an average atom of the first group combined with one half of an oxygen atom.

The second group was one-for-one. Beryllium, magnesium, calcium all took up both of oxygen’s bonds, generic formula RO.

Then there was a two-to-three group, boron, aluminum, etc, where two atoms of the element, with three bonds apiece, would combine with three atoms of oxygen, for a generic formula R2O3, or each atom combining with one and a half oxygen atoms.

This could be carried through until you got to elements that would combine with four full oxygen atoms (RO4), giving a total of eight possibilities, with elements sorted into eight groups.

Mendeleyev could sort these groups each by increasing atomic weight, then set these groups next to each other as columns in a grid. When he did that, he could read across, from group 1 to group 8, increasing atomic weights in the top row. Then the next row started in group 1 with a higher atomic weight and repeated the process. It was a periodic trend, every eighth element landed in the same group.

There were a few irregularities. For instance group eight, the one-to-four group, would either be empty on a given row, or hold three neighboring elements (iron-cobalt-nickel, ruthenium-rhodium-palladium, osmium-iridium-platinum), which was a bit of an irregularity, but it was a regular irregularity as every other row had one of these triples in column 8; the empty cells and the cells with three elements alternated.

That was far less interesting than some of the other irregularities in the sequence. For instance calcium belonged with beryllium and magnesium above it (and strontium and barium below it) in the one-to-one column, column 2. But the next element after that was titanium, which was a two-to-one which did not belong in the next three-to-two column which had boron and aluminum. Rather, it belonged better in column 4. So maybe this was all a waste of time?

Or maaaaybe the cell skipped over was a hitherto unknown element! So leave that spot open, and put titanium under carbon and silicon, the one to two column, where it belongs. (Titanium dioxide is a thing.)

There were two more holes between zinc and arsenic. And others, but Mendeleyev chose to focus on these three.

Figure 7-1 Adapted from Dmitri Mendeleyev’s First Periodic Table, 1871
He wrongly placed Di, Ce, Er, and La (rows 8 and 10). Di (didymium) turned out to be two different elements,
but really La (lanthanum) should go in that square, not either of the two hiding in “didymium.”

Mendeleyev predicted three new elements to fill these holes. The first one he predicted an atomic weight of 44, an oxide R2O3 weighing about 3.5 grams per cubic centimeter. He made other predictions for the other two elements.

All three of these elements were found in the next 20 years, they are scandium, gallium, and germanium respectively. And they matched up with Mendeleev’s predictions pretty damn well. Not exactly, but far too close to be random chance.

Mendeleyev was definitely onto something. Previously, elements had popped up at random, with no rhyme or reason, totally unpredictably. A bright chemist might have a hunch that some mineral (say) had something new in it, and might even be able to prove it without isolating the element, but one could never tell when such a thing would turn up, or what the new element would be like, until isolated.

But now Mendeleyev could tell you, before anyone else had so much of an inkling as to the existence of an element, what it would be like!

Because of this, it didn’t take long for chemists to accept this pattern. It’s now called the periodic table of the elements. It has gone through several changes (the most important going from 8 columns to 18, or actually, 32) but it traces right back to Mendeleyev. It became so deeply ingrained, that chemists were even willing to disregard atomic weights if they were out of the periodic table sequence. In particular, 1889 a chemist named Brauner measured the atomic weight of tellurium very carefully and got a higher value than before, 127.6. This was a group 6 element, in the column headed by oxygen. Its next door neighbor in group 7 was iodine, and iodine had an atomic weight of 127. So now all of the sudden, tellurium had a higher weight than the next element in the sequence.

Does this mean that iodine and tellurium should swap places? Nope. Leave them where they are. There must be some reason for the oddity, but matching group membership was more important than arranging things in order by atomic weight. (Mendeleyev’s attitude was a bit different. He apparnetly figured the new number for tellurium must be mistaken; he wasn’t willing to part with the assumption that the atomic weights had to increase as you read across the rows, but he clearly did think the periodic sequence was more important; given a “contradiction” he went with the periodic table, not the atomic weight data.)

But even as the periodic table was being accepted as an organizing principle, it looked like it was starting to unravel. In the early 1800s chemists started discovering “rare earth elements” with atomic weights between 138 and 175. (No other elements were in this big gap.) They found more and more of these elements…and they were similar to each other, enough so that they were hard to separate, and the similarities were in fact why newer elements were able to hide within older ones. It’s like they were all trying to cram into the square below scandium and yttrium! (Mendeleyev knew of four in 1871, there would ultimately turn out to be fifteen of them.)

Figure 7-2: Adapted from Mendeleyev’s 1891 table.
This is probably a bit more recognizable to modern eyes; rows 3 and 4 are almost dead-on as today’s rows 4 and 5.
The following rare earths are not included: Er (erbium), Tb (terbium), Ho (holmium), Tm (thulium,
Sm (samarium), Gd (gadolinium, Pr (praseodymium), Nd (neodymium), and Dy (dysprosium).
Nd and Pr are the two elements that had previously been combined as Di.
Ce and Yb are not on the right places (they are rare earth metals).

As more and more of these elements were discovered, Mendeleyev simply didn’t know what to do with them and just gave up trying to fit them in–leaving it for a future genius to solve. Other chemists tried to organize them and failed to do anything convincing with them. Since they didn’t follow the rules, there wasn’t even any way to know for certain how many of them there were!

So it was frustrating. There was only partial order to the elements, but then, where there was order, it was very, very useful. Call it a win, overall, even if it wasn’t a rout.

Sir William Ramsay

In fact, there wasn’t even any assurance that there wasn’t a totally unseen column in the table.

Wheatie asked me the question, once, as to whether there could be undiscovered elements between the ones we know about. Without pulling in a spoiler, the answer is basically “not no, but hell no!”

That’s the answer today, because of discoveries made in the 1910s. Back then, that was not the answer by a long shot; there were known holes in the table such as Mendeleyev’s three predictions. And who the heck knew how many of those damn rare earths there were, not to mention more holes like the one at atomic weight about-a-hundred.

Well, back up to 1785. Cavendish…remember him? G? Flammable air (i.e., phlogiston hydrogen)?

In a totally different experiment, Cavendish had reacted phlogisticated air (nitrogen) and dephlogisticated air (oxygen) with a spark, repeatedly, making niter. But some of the nitrogen just wouldn’t react. Since his source for these gases was the atmosphere, he was able to determine that this residue accounted for 1/120th of the atmosphere. (He was a very careful, meticulous and precise measurer, which is how he was able to determine G, a difficult thing to measure even today.)

And there that matter stood, basically forgotten, for almost a hundred years. Until 1882 when Lord Raleigh at Cambridge University’s Cavendish Laboratory (the irony!) was working with hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen, trying to determine their densities and hence (thanks to Avogadro’s law) their atomic weights. He got good solid values for hydrogen and oxygen, but for nitrogen, he couldn’t get consistent results. If the nitrogen came from ammonia, his result was 1/2 of a percent lower than if the nitrogen came from the atmosphere. Raleigh was probably banging his head on the wall in frustration. He wrote to Nature, the preeminent scientific journal, asking if anyone else had any idea what was going on, just like today we might post on a chemistry forum online. He got a bunch of suggestions, including that the leftover gas might be N3, a hypothetical, less reactive form of nitrogen, just as oxygen could form O3 (ozone) instead of its usual O2.

Sir William Ramsay took another approach. He took some air, passed it over hot copper to remove the oxygen, hot magnesium to get rid of the nitrogen, soda lime to get rid of the carbon dioxide, and phosphorus pentoxide to get rid of the water vapor.

What he had left was about 1/80th of what he started with. At first he and others thought that this was indeed N3. But Sir William Crooks was able to prove that whatever this was, it wasn’t any kind of nitrogen.

In 1894, Ramsay realized the truth. This was a new element, one that didn’t react to oxygen at all. For that matter, it didn’t react with anything else either, including itself. This was argon, and it’s in every breath you take. An utterly non-reactive gas.

In addition to group 1, where every atom reacted with half an oxygen atom, through group 8, where every atom reacted with four oxygen atoms, in steps of half an oxygen atom, there was something one step to the left. Atoms that would react with no oxygen atoms.

This explained what Cavendish had seen.

There was a whole new column in the periodic table, call it Group 0.

Ramsay continued working into 1895 looking for other members of this column, unaware that he’d been partially scooped.

But 1895 is our line. We’re not quite yet ready to step across it.

Conclusion

There’s no new conservation law this time, rather a reinforcement of the conservation of mass and the conservation of energy, but we have plenty of mysteries.

Why are there so many different kinds of atoms? It’s nice that they form a pattern, but it’s not a perfect pattern, and those damnable rare earths really bork it in one place. Why is there a pattern, and why is it not perfect?

What is the relationship between atoms and electricity? We still don’t know what the electric fluid is. We have one tantalizing clue, that a bazillion coulombs (okay, 96,485.3 colombs, but that’s a lot) of charge seems able to bust up one mole of a single bonded molecule.

Remember, as far as we knew, an atom was an indivisible thing. Yet they seemed to be swapping electrical charges (or something) when forming compounds, with electrolysis somehow undoing that to break compounds apart.

All of which just pointed to a need to keep investigating atoms.

Obligatory PSAs and Reminders

China is Lower than Whale Shit

Remember Hong Kong!!!

Whoever ends up in the cell next to his, tell him I said “Hi.”

中国是个混蛋 !!!
Zhōngguò shì gè hùndàn !!!
China is asshoe !!!

China is in the White House

Since Wednesday, January 20 at Noon EST, the bought-and-paid for His Fraudulency Joseph Biden has been in the White House. It’s as good as having China in the Oval Office.

Joe Biden is Asshoe

China is in the White House, because Joe Biden is in the White House, and Joe Biden is identically equal to China. China is Asshoe. Therefore, Joe Biden is Asshoe.

But of course the much more important thing to realize:

Joe Biden Didn’t Win

乔*拜登没赢 !!!
Qiáo Bài dēng méi yíng !!!
Joe Biden didn’t win !!!

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Wolf Moon

No way I’m first!

Wolf Moon

I’m wrong about that, apparently.

Wolf Moon

And I did read the post, but I cheated, by proofing it. 😉

Happy Caturday!
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gil00

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Wolf Moon

LOL!

Deplorable Patriot

Dogs need their own day of the week. Honestly.

holly

Every day is Dog Day in my house. My dog makes sure I don’t forget.

Deplorable Patriot

5:30 am Ying got the house up. An hour later, she’s asleep.

holly

Same. They wake up all refreshed and then it’s “let’s go do something!”

Deplorable Patriot

Ying just wants her people around her. It’s a Havanese trait. She’s also mad at me. I took her to the vet Thursday, and her ears got massively cleaned out. There was an infection I just couldn’t beat, and I think it’s yeast, so it’s been cultured. We’re probably looking at anti-biotics and anti-fungals.

Yuck.

And a knee problem, and arthritis, and she needs to lose weight. And….

holly

Have a very needy cockapoo with yeast in her ear and a trick knee. Entederm once daily in the ear. Seems to be working.

Wolf Moon

LOL @ “needy cockapoo”!

Cuppa Covfefe

Sort of like the Golden in this one (now that I think of it, the Lab) 😆
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holly

LOL That’s great! Going to pass it along to some fellow dog lovers.

Grandmaintexas

I have a sixteen-year-old pup who gets us up at the crack of dawn every day. He won’t let us sleep in.

gil00

My foxhound waits as long as shes gone out 2 oee once or twice at night.
We’ve had her 15 months now and still has not barked or howled except during a dream.

Grandmaintexas

Ooh. Foxhound! I’m going to take a look at them.

gil00

She is a good dog. Getting fat and lazy being a pet, but only 60 lbs. Not a digger, getting on furniture, or chewer.
Her color is tan and white.
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gil00

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Wolf Moon

Muttday?
Cursday?
Fidoday?

Or maybe Caturday needs Dog Day Afternoon! 😃

Deplorable Patriot

It will be a dog day today. WHEW! It’s going to be warm.

Wolf Moon

I have not checked the comments yet to see if anybody other than Cthulhu appreciated the rather amazing compression of “advancement of the elements from 4.5 to N” into a short and very understandable “de-Vulcan-ization of phlogiston”, but good show!

I will get it into the sidebar soon enough!

Wolf Moon

Done!

gil00

Kyle Becker (@kylenabecker) Tweeted:
BREAKING. 🚨

PENNSYLVANIA has unveiled an Election Integrity bill that includes Strict Voter ID. This is *major.*🔻 https://t.co/jG6MKmWlr8

Linda

The last time anyone here has to show ID is when they first register to vote. For me, that was 20 years ago when I moved back here. /smh

Wolf Moon

Wow – that’s nasty. We have to show ID every time we vote!

Maybe that’s why we only have communists working as bartenders, and not running the state!

Linda

Now you can understand why Oregon hasn’t had a republican governor since mail-in voting started.

Wolf Moon

This has to end. We cannot let this continue.

It’s such an outrage. Just such an outrage.

Gail Combs

We have to show an ID to buy cigarettes & booze. We had to show it for ONE election then the Demon-Rats challenged it. It went to the Supreme Court but was never defended by our state AG… GUESS WHO HE WAS??

Yeah, that is right COOPER who then won the governorship in 2016 by having more votes than voters in 20 of our 100 counties.  🙄  😫 

scott467

Make it as hard to vote as it is to buy a gun.

Wolf Moon

I like that.

Gail Combs

Or at least as hard as it is to buy BOOZE!

Sadie Slays

Don’t get excited. The Democrat Governor has already said he’ll veto it. Not enough votes in the Legislature to override.

https://www.msn.com/en-us/news/politics/pa-gov-tom-wolf-says-he-will-veto-any-bill-that-suppresses-voter-access/ar-AAKSLQI

Last edited 1 month ago by Sadie Slays
Wolf Moon

No problem. Make them show their cards before the final fight.

Wolf Moon
scott467

“YOU LYING SACKS OF SHIT WILL RETURN THE DIAMONDS.
OR AMERICA WILL SEE YOU HANG.”

____________

Umm, I’m going with AND LOGIC for that one…. 👍😁

Wolf Moon

Trump did an amazing thing by letting the crooks leave the property with the stolen diamonds without being shot at.

NOW we see who is real and who is not.

Good GOD almighty – to see DOJ threatening AGAINST truth and justice – it is an absolute abomination.

Wolf Moon

To see the DOJ and FBI engage in criminal behavior is now an outrage that demands justice at levels not seen in thousands of years.

Merrick Garland, how can you be part of this? How? Have you turned against GOD HIMSELF?

scott467

“Merrick Garland, how can you be part of this? How? Have you turned against GOD HIMSELF?

_______________

If he hadn’t, would they have ever hired him?

Wolf Moon

I guess that’s a “yes no matter what he says”.

Cuppa Covfefe

He’s a DEMONRAT, and the DEMONRATS threw GOD HIMSELF out of the DEMONRAT “party” and the DEMONRAT “platform”.

The party of abortion, perversion, crime, and “situational ethics” has no place for nor any interest in any god other than themselves and their master, Satan…

Bid – Ho, Bid – Ho, it’s off to Hell they go…

Deplorable Patriot

Was Merrick Garland ever with God in the first place?

Wolf Moon

It’s a great question.

Wiki avoids any mention of religion, but the question was asked when he was nominated by Obama.

https://njjewishnews.timesofisrael.com/inside-the-jewish-life-of-supreme-court-nominee-merrick-garland/

He’s on an arc of decreasing rigor but plateaued (raised Conservative, married Reform, member of a Reform congregation). Family history looks potentially “diaper”.

Interesting story about Reno and Ted Kaczynski and a seder – there is some interest there – a bit too complicated to get into now, but something interesting.

THIS statement he made at the time of his nomination to SCOTUS borders on hilarious in the current context.

“I think the rule of law is what distinguishes our country from most other countries,” Garland says in the video. “It’s people’s willingness to trust that they don’t have to take justice into their own hands, that law will treat people fairly and impartially, and without regard to politics or religion or race or anything else.”

REALLY.

COUGH.

Cuppa Covfefe

I think he’s really, REALLY PWNED, by someone (Klintoons, Kabal (lah),
Øbløwhøle, etc.). That the DEMONRATS would take out Scalia so they could deposit him onto SCOTUS speaks volumes. Dark and witchy tomes…

Wolf Moon

Replacing Scalia with deep diaper makes loads of Obama sense. Garland is core Chicago, too. Makes loads of sense.

Brave and Free

I truly believe that they have.
Or as it says ” I will have mercy on whom I have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I have compassion.”
There put in place to carry out evil,
“Therefore God has mercy on whom he wants to have mercy , and he hardens whom he wants to harden.”

Wolf Moon

scott467

If they made up votes for the 2020 election, they will absolutely make up false ‘evidence’ of post-election audit ‘tampering’ to preserve the fake 2020 election result.

It’s the equivalent of the police showing up during an armed bank robbery, and now the robbers are taking hostages.

They will threaten to kill the hostages.

And then they will start killing them, one by one.

The one thing they will never do is surrender, because they know they’re dead either way.

It’s how every such situation terminates.

It reaches a point where the Police have to rush the bank in order to save as many hostages as they can, because if they don’t, all the hostages will be killed.

That is where this was always going, since 2016.

There was never any end-game that did not involve physical force to stop the global crime syndicate, because the global crime syndicate knows that if they give up, they’re dead.

As long as they don’t give up, they’re still alive.

Alive beats dead, ergo they will never give up, ergo the only way to stop them is to stop them dead.

From the very beginning, that was how the story ends.

We’re just waiting for the discovery of something they’ve done that is so heinous, the people can’t even hear the narrative anymore, because they’re rushing en masse at the criminals, everywhere, at once.

Wolf Moon

It’s going to be interesting.

Grandmaintexas

I tend to agree.

This is one massive uncovering of corruption. I still reel from it at times.

It is absolutely surreal.

They won’t go peacefully. They’ve gotten so used to cheating and lying that they feel it is their right to usurp power from the people.

Wolf Moon

This is their moral trick. As long as THEY are able to do it non-violently, they say “you can’t use violence against us”.

But when the chips are down, they let SOME of their own use violence, and they IGNORE IT.

It’s evil. It’s utterly evil.

Grandmaintexas

And it is so arrogant! It makes me grit my teeth in anger.

Wolf Moon

Same here. It’s not America. It’s not even MEXICO.

scott467

“This is their moral trick. As long as THEY are able to do it non-violently, they say “you can’t use violence against us”.”

_____________

No violence, just arrest.

If they resist arrest, then they commit the violence, and we’re only responding to it with necessary force.

Nor'easter

To everything, there is a season…”

Last edited 1 month ago by Nor'easter
Nor'easter

“Violence is never the answer.”

vs

“Not only is violence sometimes the answer;
Sometimes violence is the only answer.”

Emeraldstar

Indeed.

I’m tired of theses over-simplified catch-phrase mantras, used to dumb-down gullible people.

They truly are *spells* … and they still WORK on far too many people today (as opposed to decades, or even centuries, ago).

Last edited 1 month ago by Emeraldstar
Nor'easter

“Romantic semantics”
😉

Cuppa Covfefe

Passive-aggressive.

Or, my favorite, obsessive-repulsive…

Wolf Moon

There’s gonna be a fight. I don’t see any way out of it now.

Grandmaintexas

Yep. However, once the dust settles we may have our republic back.

I hope the good guys are ready.

Wolf Moon

Yes. We shall have it back.

This kind of criminality by the DOJ is intolerable.

singingsoul1

The DOJ behaves like the Stasi.
They try to instill fear and control through fear and threads and then make examples out of some high profile people. When they make the example they count that no one ever questioned their authority.
This needs to be slapped douwn right away and they cannot have success with their tactics.
Mistake that non of these crimminals got jailed under Trump.

Wolf Moon

Yup. Indeed, it seems like THEIR “Plan B” was to allow Trump into the White House and then destroy him there – and when that failed – destroy him AND his movement in 2020.

These people are INSIDIOUS.

singingsoul1

I think you are right !
They are pushing us to see how far they can go.

Brave and Free

Agreed, that’s been their end game all along. Get the people to resist then they can come and clean up the rest.
“In the name of Law and order.” 🤣😂😅😆

Wolf Moon

Just sad. Bolsheviks. They never change.

scott467

No reason to fix what works.

Sylvia Avery

“they will never give up, ergo the only way to stop them is to stop them dead.”

Yes.

mollypitcher5

Exactly. Things are so unevenly set up, with crooked lawfare, crooked judiciary, corrupt upper level military, etc….I’m sure that none of them are even afraid of exposure. Maybe a little but really who’s going to arrest them, jail them, try them ?
Will it only be the lowly techs ? Until the rot is cut off and burned none of this will improve.

Gingersmom2009

It’s on Weiner’s laptop and involves H.

Last edited 1 month ago by Gingersmom2009
ROBERT BAKER

There was never any end-game that did not involve physical force to stop the global crime syndicate, because the global crime syndicate knows that if they give up, they’re dead.”

ASSUMPTION: The above statement is true.

QUESTION: Why did Trump let it go this far?
QUESTION: Why did no one with legitimate authority (government officials) do anything in the face of an obvious treasonous act knowing that taking no action would lead to an inevitable deadly solution?
QUESTION: Why did institutions designed to address these specific problems stand aside or collaborate with the traitors?

It is now a much bigger problem than it would have been six months ago and will, if the chosen strategy remains to do nothing, continue to grow until civil war is no longer a possible solution but the ONLY solution.

singingsoul1

Yes and military men invade our border. On whose side are they going to be?

scott467

Every once in a while, the possibility occurs to me that:

A) we have been in WWIII since the beginning of the DJT administration

B) the corrupt government members were given a choice to fight for America by turning their normal subversive role up to ’11’, to expose everything by ‘going over the top’, to the point that it could no longer continue… and they accepted

C) and in doing so, force the issue and overthrow the CCP takeover and control of the United States, which in turn

D) would expose and overthrow the CCP takeover and control of just about every Western country in the world

It’s just a dream I had… 😁

Wolf Moon

“Justice Department”. AS IF!!!

Sylvia Avery

“Earlier on Friday, the Biden Department of Justice warned state lawmakers that if they proceeded to audit fraudulent elections they will be targeted by the Biden administration.
The US Constitution specifically gives the power to the states to regulate federal elections as they see fit.
You would think the Attorney General of the United States would know this.
Following the threats by the Biden regime, former fighter pilot and Arizona state Senator Wendy Rogers warned Merrick Garland to stay in his lane…..”
https://www.thegatewaypundit.com/2021/06/arizona-lawmaker-responds-ag-garland-will-not-touch-arizona-ballots-machines-unless-want-spend-time-arizona-prison/

Grandmaintexas

The elites have bit off more than they can chew.

Wolf Moon

The diamonds must be returned, or the dirty cops will need to be arrested.

Gail Combs

This is where SHERIFFS COME IN!

Wyoming Sheriffs Told Federal BATF & IRS Agents To Abide By The Constitution Or Face Immediate Arrest. UPDATED!

….Here’s one the mainstream media isn’t going to tell you: County sheriffs in Wyoming are demanding that federal agents actually abide by the Constitution, or face arrest. Even better, a U.S. Federal District Court agreed….

Guess what? The District Court ruled in favor of the sheriffs. In fact, they stated, Wyoming is a sovereign state and the duly elected sheriff of a county is the highest law enforcement official within a county and has law enforcement powers exceeding that of any other state or federal official.”

Go back and re-read this quote.

𝗧𝗵𝗲 𝗰𝗼𝘂𝗿𝘁 𝗰𝗼𝗻𝗳𝗶𝗿𝗺𝘀 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝗮𝘀𝘀𝗲𝗿𝘁𝘀 𝘁𝗵𝗮𝘁 “𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗱𝘂𝗹𝘆 𝗲𝗹𝗲𝗰𝘁𝗲𝗱 𝘀𝗵𝗲𝗿𝗶𝗳𝗳 𝗼𝗳 𝗮 𝗰𝗼𝘂𝗻𝘁𝘆 𝗶𝘀 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗵𝗶𝗴𝗵𝗲𝘀𝘁 𝗹𝗮𝘄 𝗲𝗻𝗳𝗼𝗿𝗰𝗲𝗺𝗲𝗻𝘁 𝗼𝗳𝗳𝗶𝗰𝗶𝗮𝗹 𝘄𝗶𝘁𝗵𝗶𝗻 𝗮 𝗰𝗼𝘂𝗻𝘁𝘆 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝗵𝗮𝘀 𝗹𝗮𝘄 𝗲𝗻𝗳𝗼𝗿𝗰𝗲𝗺𝗲𝗻𝘁 𝗽𝗼𝘄𝗲𝗿𝘀 𝗘𝗫𝗖𝗘𝗘𝗗𝗜𝗡𝗚 𝘁𝗵𝗮𝘁 𝗼𝗳 𝗮𝗻𝘆 𝗼𝘁𝗵𝗲𝗿 𝘀𝘁𝗮𝘁𝗲 𝗢𝗥 𝗳𝗲𝗱𝗲𝗿𝗮𝗹 𝗼𝗳𝗳𝗶𝗰𝗶𝗮𝗹.”

And you thought the 10th Amendment was dead and buried — not in Wyoming, not yet….

SO THERE IS A LEGAL PRECEDENCE ALREADY SET!

Emeraldstar

I agree – sheriffs are the key.

AFAIK, a County Sheriff has the power to arrest even the State Governor, if that Guv is in his / her county.

The same goes for the USAG – like we’ve just seen in the current spat in AZ, except it’s the AZ State AG in this case.

Perhaps we need a mail (et al.) campaign to inform / remind all 3000+ County Sheriffs of their duties – and powers – in this regard.

Nor'easter

A little gray area…

The US attorney general is appointed by the chief executive (after being confirmed by the Senate).

State Attorney Generals are elected.

(although they both like to tout the idea they execute the duties of the office “without fear or favor”).

Emeraldstar

>>”A little gray area…”<<

Yeah!

My analogy of Sheriffs of Counties and AG’s of States (and of the Country) isn’t as exact as I could have made it – but such is the nature of analogies, always part right and part wrong.

The central idea is sovereignty – and it seems to be that County Sheriffs have a good amount of it (over State officials AND Federal officials), just as (almost!) State officials have a good amount of it over Federal officials.

There are exceptions, of course – but they are exceptions (minor) rather than rules (major).

Nor'easter

Yes… Perhaps more accurately, “checks and balances” ?
(as I’m sure that there is such thing as “rogue sheriffs”)
😉

singingsoul1

Can Sheriffs deputize citizens to help them if the Federal Government comes in trying to bully or overstep their authority?

Emeraldstar

>>”Can Sheriffs deputize citizens”<<

Yes.

At will (their discretion is absolute, in effect), and without any limit as to the number of individuals so deputized.

I for one would like to see it implemented ALL OVER our beloved American Constitutional Republic.

Let’s “Git ‘er done”! Haha …

singingsoul1

Good there will be a serious fight if Garland oversteps his authority. They will put the military against the citizens.
Now it makes sense why they demonize deplorable in the FBI.

Grandmaintexas

They are too late to the game of having troops fire on civilians…at least in a big way.

They do not have the rank and file.

I think PT made them pull the trigger too early. This is, perhaps, why they have gone bonkers trying to implement CRT and associated insanity.

singingsoul1

Pray you are right 🙂

Grandmaintexas

😇🙏

Wolf Moon

Ah, this makes sense. Wow.

gil00

Thats why gruesome hasnt left his county except for hidden flights to montana.

singingsoul1

Garland has shown himself to be a communist thug.
We might have a serious fight between state and federal government if Garland steps over his line.

Wolf Moon

I’m thinking he may be deep diaper.

Cuppa Covfefe

And he’s fixing to have a “racing stripe” (brownfog day) in that diaper if he keeps up with what he thinks he can do…..

gil00

Hi Miss Sylvia. Hope the wound scar is starting to fade a bit by now and no complications.

Wolf Moon

From GAB, from Flynn’s Telegram account, copied from Twitter:

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Wolf Moon

People are FINALLY standing up to these corrupt bastards.

Wolf Moon

“The Justice Department is one of the most corrupt institutions in the USA.”

Aubergine

Yep, here we are. States are taking back the rights granted to them by the Constitution and usurped slowly for over a century by the federal government.

It almost seems like a plan or something… 😉

Last edited 1 month ago by Aubergine
Wolf Moon

Sure hope so.

Grandmaintexas

This is very gratifying to see. The pushback on these criminals.

Wolf Moon

It’s just so NAKED and RAW now – now that they’re holding power and feeling like nothing can stop them.

Wolf Moon

People can SEE IT. We HAVE to push back. We MUST.

cthulhu

It’s naked and raw because VSGPOTUSDJT pantsed it.

Wolf Moon

LOL! Yup.

Aubergine

Everybody circle up around them now and chant with me:

“I see your weiner, I see your weiner!”

Cuppa Covfefe

Just his laptop will do (Nick Danger’s, that is)…

scott467

“I see your TINY weiner”, followed by the name of a specific government criminal, would be even more hilarious 👍 😁

Grandmaintexas

I suppose they’ve gamed out scenarios where states won’t fall in line and citizens push back. I mean the January 6 rally is their jumping off point to shut down citizens expressing their rights.

None of them have an ounce of patriotism left. They’ll do what it takes to stay in power.

Everyone should be prepared to hunker down.

Wolf Moon

Prepare for all possibilities. Hunkering down is one, but if a grand army of restoration happens, I’m there.

I train fast, and I wouldn’t mind driving a TANK headed for DC.

My truck made its last trip there. I need something with more firepower.

We have a COMMUNIST INSURRECTION to put down.

bflyjesusgrl

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Wolf Moon

NICE!!!

scott467

“Everyone should be prepared to hunker down.”

___________

Or hunker up!

😁 👍

cthulhu

I’d say she’s got his number.

Deplorable Patriot

The states touring the audit in AZ include Washington, Utah, Missouri, Oklahoma, Nevada, Virginia and the ones in contention.

Things are going to get sticky if the fake administration tries to stop all this.

Wolf Moon

Yes. “The diamonds must be returned.”

When the cops hold the diamonds, and come up with excuses, they go to the top of the real “Ten Most Wanted” list.

Wolf Moon

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Andrew Torba https://gab.com/emoji/271d.svg
@a12
h
·

I want to see clips of based moms making fools out of school boards and based dads making fools out of city council members daily. We need to keep this going. The real movement is in your backyard, not in Washington DC. Federal politics is subverted by corporations and foreign nations, but for the moment we can still regain control of our own local governments and schools. It’s time to do so.

4,341 likes
215 comments
1,557 reposts

gil00

Smidge of reality down San diego way about the covid lockdown. Gruesomw and his cronies deserve prison but some reality and life hs pushed him aside “whether he likes it or not.”

KUSI News (@KUSINews) Tweeted:
California politicians continue to play the color-coded game, but most people living in the “real world” are not.

“Let’s just be real, places have been open, and this whole color-coded thing has been ignored for a long time.”

Full Story: https://t.co/v19ahsLmV7 https://t.co/Nw3xFbEH8D

gil00

Its not us the conservatives. We dont want this. Its a bottomless pit, a slush fund for God knows what. And Biden cancelled the Wall and keystone.

News (@KUSINews) Tweeted:
The federal government has reached an agreement to restore nearly $1 billion in funding for California’s troubled bullet train

https://t.co/GS1pfF8VXq

Wolf Moon

Yeah, there is something very weird here.

cthulhu

Nothing weird, just California-level grift.

Emeraldstar

Protecting their DEW / wildfire-starting “investment” along the route of this “bullet train” boondoggle of graft?

“Paradise” …

Last edited 1 month ago by Emeraldstar
mollypitcher5

Yes ! They can burn up the whole corridor and ‘rebuild better’ on stolen property

Cuppa Covfefe

Insane train from nowhere to nowhere, likely to be ridden by no-one.

Except maybe trafficking victims and coyotes…..

gil00

Its over a decade and costs going up and up. And nothing being done. Its wierd.

gil00

All the grift for favored status.

Cuppa Covfefe

Q: What’s BRIGHT fluorescent orange, and sleeps six?
A: A CalTrans truck…

Cuppa Covfefe

But… but…. but… Always On Camera says they can put some on the top of the train, too, so it can be self-powered. Just add a few Unicorn Farts and Pixie Dust (remembering, of course, that the thing was pushed, if not started, by governor Moonbeam)…

We’ve got almost complete electrification over here, and the load on the net is enormous. Will be interesting to see what happens when all of our nukes are shut off, the Greens manage to shut off coal by 2030, and Uncle Vlad decides to turn off the spigot to punish Ukraine….

Maybe the days of Steam will come back 🙂 We have tons of locos preserved in museums (sad to say, nothing close to 4014 and its brethren, or even 3985, Challenger), but lots of serviceable “varnish”…

Oh, wait. The greens are all up in the trees, protesting….. Fridays for the Failure…

Oh, btw, thank God it’s Faraday (OK, a little late, but still :)… Nice article and series, especially since they’re about when science WAS about SCIENCE and not stuffing someone’s pockets. What was it Eisenhower warned about the Academic-Government Complex…..

scott467

“What, are we supposed to imagine a handful of windmills is powering that thing?”

__________

The windmills go on top of the trains, obviously. The faster the trains go, the more power the windmills produce, the faster the trains go, all the way up to light speed.

Which is the secret name of the project, it’s the Light Speed Train.

When completed, it will go from CA to NY in about 5 minutes.

4:59 to reach the speed of light, and then you’re there.

It’s an ambitious project, like all the best Leftist projects are.

The monkey wrench that’s holding everything up is how to slow the train down without overshooting the destination and going into orbit…

…of another star system… 👍 😁

Last edited 1 month ago by scott467
Wolf Moon

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ℕ𝔼𝕆ℕ ℝ𝔼𝕍𝕆𝕃𝕋
@NeonRevolt
3h
·

Conspiracy no more…

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784 likes
28 comments
410 reposts

scott467

Is NeonRevolt back?

When I go to his Gab page, I still get the “This account is private. You must request to follow in order to view their page” message.

And the last article posted to his webpage was January 6th.

Sadie Slays

Yeah, Neon’s posting regularly on Gab again.

scott467

So does that mean I’ve been banned, if I can’t see anything besides the “This account is private. You must request to follow in order to view their page” message?

Half the fun of being banned is doing something to get banned — and I didn’t do anything yet!

Wolf Moon

Interesting. I wonder if you just got stuck in limbo.

scott467

I clicked the ‘follow’ button months ago, and it changed to “Requested”.

If I click it now, it goes back to saying “Follow”, and in the bottom left hand corner, it says “account unfollow success”.

If I click the green “Follow” button again, the follow button changes back to “Requested”, and in the bottom left hand corner is says “account follow success”.

But no matter what I do, I can see no posts at all, just “This account is private. You must request to follow in order to view their page.”

Last edited 1 month ago by scott467
scott467

This is the web address I always used before, but isn’t working for me now:

https://gab.com/NeonRevolt

Grandmaintexas

Same here.

Sadie Slays

This is pure speculation on my part, but it might be a matter of Neon needing to manually approve new followers or otherwise do something on his end. Try tweeting at him and asking him to approve your request? 

scott467

Sadie, how do I do that?

As far as I can tell, he doesn’t have a Twitter account. When I looked for him there, I found a link (repost) from Gab, to ‘Great Awakening’, where one of Neon’s posts was re-posted, it’s pinned to the very top of the ‘Great Awakening’ group, if which it turns out I am a member:

https://gab.com/groups/2043

.

And I found another outside link to a direct post of Neon’s:

https://gab.com/NeonRevolt/posts/105376847328618279

.

In either case, I don’t see any way to send a direct message, but I’m not very familiar with Gab either. I mostly just used Gab to follow Neon’s page and post comments there occasionally.

Sadie Slays

What I meant was try posting a Gab starting with @NeonRevolt, or post a message in his Q group asking if he could approve your follow request. 

scott467

Thank you!

Nor'easter

I am seeing his posts occasionally but only as a re-post by who I assume must be one of his “approved” followers.
(if I stumble out of one I will post; maybe try “following” one of his “approved” followers ?)

EDIT :
That was easy !
It was re-posted by one of our very own:

https://gab.com/Bflyjesusgrl

😉

Last edited 1 month ago by Nor'easter
Gingersmom2009

I get the same thing. But as I recall he blocked me for standing up for myself several months ago. And it was such an important exchange . . . that I can’t even recall what it was about. 😄 Just a little big for his britches I’d say. There are lots of smart people out there who can write, and are willing to.

Cuppa Covfefe

We’ll find something 😆

Pre-emptive punishment – it’s all the rage, now 😀
(Brought to you and tested by the deep state, in Orwell’s UK)…

Wolf Moon

Kristi Noem on Fauci:

Last edited 1 month ago by Wolf Moon
Wolf Moon

This uses the Gab TV embed builder, but the HTML code they give you does not stop it from autoplaying, even though it does not say that the autoplay is on.

THEREFORE, just copy the code with autoplay checked, and change the value from “on” to “off” after pasting it into the code popup here.

Wolf Moon

J+J Vaccine.

Last edited 1 month ago by Wolf Moon
Grandmaintexas

https://www.takimag.com/article/institutional-collapse/

“A year of outright lies from the scientific community regarding the origins and threat posed by Covid has severely weakened that trust. The scandalous efforts by the tech monopolies to suppress any debate over these topics have revealed their authoritarian instincts. The Fauci Affair is coloring all of this with the taint of foreign loyalty. To many Americans, Covid is looking like a year of ritual humiliation in service to foreign interests and private gain by connected insiders.”

scott467

“A year of outright lies from the scientific community regarding the origins and threat posed by Covid has severely weakened that trust.”

______________

Oh, here it is, the trust We the People have in the scientific ‘community’:

.
.
.

And what do we have here?

It looks like… yes, I think it is! The trust We the People have in the medical ‘community’!

Grandmaintexas

NUKED!!!

scott467

Just look at that ‘trust’ go!

It blowed up real good!

Grandmaintexas

From GAB:
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Grandmaintexas

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cthulhu

I’d imagine that they must know that there is an offsite copy of audit documentation and imaged data. And that if they showed up with a piece of paper to back this “seize everything” mandate, they’d be laughed at. And if they showed up with a full Federal assault force, there would be casualties on both sides.

Things would get really salty really fast if they went for option 1.

Wolf Moon

The reason the wicked Communist Feds are getting antsy is that they’ve been illegally spying on the audit, a la Holder, and they know what’s coming.

Aubergine

You bet they are!

And their spies are reporting back REAL BAD NEWS.

I really think that if they seize the materials in the AZ audit there will be deaths. I have never seen the level of anger in the country that I see right now. Small things are setting off explosions. It just happened here in my small town over a “pride” crosswalk proposed by some high school students. Shit went sideways FAST. The “quiet” Conservatives are not quiet anymore.

I hope the “Just-Us” Department has correctly assessed the risk here, and backs way the fuck down.

If you “Just-Us” guys are reading here, it is in your BEST INTEREST to allow this election to be corrected. Survive to cheat another day. I am saying this for your own good, just like your Mom used to do. And you know she was always right!

Grandmaintexas

They are all in. PT will not let them fade into the sunset.

If justice does not happen they will regroup and be back in no time with even worse evil to implement.

Aubergine

Agreed. They always come back.

Wolf Moon

I think you’re right. They will use China AGAIN – maybe release a deadlier but still phony virus.

I don’t care.

The diamonds must be returned. And in a timely manner.

If not, the cops are crooked.

That needs remedy.

scott467

“It just happened here in my small town over a “pride” crosswalk proposed by some high school students. Shit went sideways FAST.”

___________

Good!

The brainwashed high school students promoting Marxism and Sodomania need to be confronted and SPANKED.

Almost certainly for the first time in their lives.

Last edited 1 month ago by scott467
Aubergine

Oh, they’re getting spanked all right. I feel sorry for them. The adults in their lives have ill-served them, and now they are getting the lesson of a life-time.

Cuppa Covfefe

Spanked? That lot might like it….. watch out for the spikes…😆

scott467

I remember those “Scared Straight” documentaries when I was a kid, where kids who were getting in trouble with the law would be taken to a state prison to see what life behind bars was like, and get confronted by real prisoners about how they were throwing their lives away.

Those ‘tough’ kids suddenly weren’t tough at all, when they were confronted by hardened criminals who were a lot bigger, stronger and tougher than the kids were.

They were intense shows. Really stripped all the excitement or allure out of being a ‘bad guy’.

A kid today would have to get PTSD counseling and crawl into a fetal position in a safe space for month if they saw one of those old shows.

Which is (one reason of many) why those shows probably couldn’t even be made today.

Cuppa Covfefe

Not forgetting the immortal “Reefer Madness” 🕵👽😵

Brave and Free

Sounds like another Waco in the making then to me. The end result my not be the same though.

Cuppa Covfefe

Might be a larger version of what happened in Franfurt (FFM, Germany) with that server amid rumblings that Haspell was there and an interagency battle was going on…

bflyjesusgrl

Yellow tables have been gone all week. Red, blue, and green tables are dwindling, they’re on the last pallet. As the colors go, more and more white tables are erected. Looks like they’re re-imaging all the ballots right now. 😉

ROBERT BAKER

Don’t forget Waco. AGs have no problem violating state sovereignty on a imaginary pretense.

scott467

True, but that was after they picked a target, and froze it.

They can’t make We the People the ‘bad guy’, because it will only expose themselves as the real bad guys, for the whole world to see 👍😁

scott467

If they try Option #1, it should be a trap.

Surround the federal assault force and arrest them all, and put them on trial.

When the Feds send a bigger assault force, do the same, surround them with every law enforcement officer in AZ, plus at least a hundred thousand armed Arizonans.

Neighboring states go on full alert.

If the Feds show up with thousands, the People from every nearby state show up with hundreds of thousands.

If the Feds show up with a hundred thousand, the People show up with MILLIONS.

We the People ALWAYS win the numbers game, and they know it.

FEAR is the criminal government’s source of power.

We the People, UNITED and ARMED, have nothing to the fear from these third-rate bullies.

Last edited 1 month ago by scott467
cthulhu

I’ve been a fan of the Prof’s advice after the meeting got raided in Moon is a Harsh Mistress. They should just disappear.

scott467

I haven’t read it!

cthulhu

It is a MUST READ.

cthulhu

Like huntin’ shinny up in the hills.

“Gee, chief — we went in and looked and didn’t find nothin’.”

Wolf Moon

I’m OK with either. I’m past anger.

I’m what might be called “resolved”.

cthulhu

The original post here is a beautiful exposition of how scientific discoveries in the late 19th Century started to froth over from one field to the next. Our understanding today stands on the shoulders of giants who literally took us from backwards phlogiston to almost modern chemistry over the course of a couple of decades.

I really wish that kids could get their first introduction to science with this perspective. Not, “everybody knows XXXXX” but “everybody ‘knew’ ZZZZZ, but weird stuff kept happening, and person YYYYY came up with an alternate explanation that made much more sense.” A History of Science with a bit more Kuhn than the old textbooks.

It was very well done, and my only regret is that it was too short…..but it really isn’t short. The presentation sweeps it along at quite a brisk pace.

cthulhu

In the interest of disclosure….my mom was going for a PhD in the History of Mathematics when I was in Junior High (she bailed), my parents have 5 STEM degrees between them, and I “cheated” in my own Econ undergrad by taking two “History of Science” courses for GE requirements that I probably could have taught (though not as well as Steve).

I ended up doing what many considered a 5-year program (Business Economics with emphasis in Accounting) in 3-1/2 years, graduating at 20. I’ve seen plenty of academic flim-flam. I consider Steve’s series so far to be excellent.

Grandmaintexas

IOW, REAL SCIENCE was happening.

Wolf Moon

YES. But even then, the NEW YORK TIMES was pushing errors. I find that interesting.

Grandmaintexas

😬

Emeraldstar

>>”a bit more Kuhn”<<

I take it that you’re referring to Thomas Kuhn, author of “The Structure of Scientific Revolutions”, published IIRC in the 60’s?

His point was that one mustn’t judge NEW theories / standards by OLD theories / standards. Doing so puts the cart before the horse, as it were …

Emeraldstar

Ha – very clever!

IMO, Descartes’ work has been quite under-appreciated by almost all subsequent mathematicians, even up until today, right now.

His famous dictum (from Meditations on First Philosophy [part VI, IIRC]) – while heralded as brilliant – means more than many know, or suspect.

Cuppa Covfefe

Be sure to use the Euler (von Neumann) before Turing, or the friction might cause a Blaise before you Pascal (Ptolemy about that). But if you just keep it at a Cantor, Euclid be OK…

(sound of approaching hooves of GRAPHIC PUNishment, Drawn, Quartered, and indexed…). (What a Boole believes)…

Wolf Moon

Yup. The knowledge of REAL SCIENCE was fought over by people who CARED ABOUT TRUTH.

Dora

Wolf Moon

The Soviet Union and China “colonized” our government as a commie power via the DNC.

Of course it’s hostile.

scott467

Like a Soviet satellite state during the Cold War.

Except we have a LOTTA guns.

Well over half a billion at last count.

Dora

Cuppa Covfefe

Bidung’s got it backwards: Biden(s) (the crock and the “Doc”) are the greatest threat to US and indeed, the West’s security.

Wolf Moon

Climate change PROPAGANDA is definitely a threat – just like critical race theory – and both of them are MADE IN CHINA and repackaged as “domestic” here!

scott467

And it’s not even new… it’s more like a Revival… 😂 🤣 😂

Dora

Dora

scott467

If he shuts down AZ, it will light all the others on fire and draw huge attention to them.

Then they will have to shut those down too, under the white hot spotlight of the entire world.

Go ahead, Merrick.

Make my day.

Light the fuse, Merrick.

We’ve been waiting a long time for this.

scott467

On second thought, how are the Feds going to shut ANYTHING down in AZ, when the Senator just said something to the effect of putting the AG in prison and the court just ruled that the Sheriffs are the highest Law Enforcement power in any state, above the Feds…

Do it, Merrick…

I wanna see you try…

Go ahead.

Everyone is calling your bluff.

And when you are forced to back down the first time, your faux invincibility is SHATTERED, and it’s all over.

Do it. Do it. DO IT!!!

😁

slowcreekno

Back at the university, at one point, when I asked the advisor for permission to take a history class pass/fail instead of a letter grade, he remarked: «History? That’s important!»

I did so well in that class that I might have got an A instead of just Pass, but ever since, that remark has never been forgotten. And the older I get the more I realize that he was right. So should anyone ask me now, I’ll reply the same.

I’m really enjoying these excellent historical physics lectures about the state of the art as of 1895, as well as the giants on whose shoulders we now stand. I see plot lines moving forward, but I’m not telling…

duchess01
duchess01

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duchess01

Thank You, Jesus, for blessings received and prayers answered!!!

duchess01

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duchess01

BE MY VOICE

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duchess01

PRAYING ON THE ARMOR OF GOD

Father God, I now follow your command to put on the full armor of God, because my battle is not against flesh and blood but against rulers, authorities, the powers of this dark world and against spiritual forces of evil in the unseen world.

I first pray on the Belt of Truth that it may be buckled around my waist, may I be centered and encircled by your truth dear Lord. Hem me inside all that is true and right, and may I be protected and held up by the truth of your living word, in my Lord Jesus name.

I pray on the Breastplate of righteousness, please protect my vital organs and my inner man, cover my integrity, my spirit, and my soul. Guard my heart for it is the wellspring of life, please strengthen and guard the most vulnerable places in my life with that which is right, good, and noble that I might not receive a fatal blow from the enemy, in my Lord Jesus name.

I pray on the Gospel Shoes of Peace. I choose to stand in the shoes of your good news, and on the firm foundation of my Lord and Savior Jesus Christ, the solid eternal rock. All other ground is sinking sand, I pray that I will not slip or fall, but that my feet would be firmly fitted on your lordship, my Lord Jesus. I choose to stand on you, so that the peace of God, which transcends all understanding will guard my heart and mind in Christ Jesus, the eternal Rock of Ages. I receive your holy peace now my Lord, from the sole of my feet to the crown of my head, in my Lord Jesus name.

I pray the Shield of Faith into my hand now. As I take up the shield of faith, I ask that you might extinguish every dart and arrow, that is launched from the enemy to take me down spiritually, physically, mentally, emotionally, and every attempt of the enemy to destroy my joy. I ask that my faith in you would make it flame out. Extinguish every flaming arrow that would come against me, my life, my family, my home, or my ministry. May my faith always be out in front of me like a shield. Give me the courage to “faith my fears” by choosing to walk by faith and not by sight, in my Lord Jesus name.

I pray on the Helmet of Salvation, that you might protect my mind from the thoughts that can lead me astray. I choose to take every thought captive, and arrest all intentioned ideas and motives that would harm others, or distract me from your holy will for me. I submit every captured thought to the Lordship of my Lord Jesus Christ, and ask that you would imprison those thoughts that are not of you my Lord. Transform my mind and renew my thinking that I may think God thoughts, and have a sober mind that is focused on your glory. Please protect me from being double minded that I may allow my mind, I reject to live an earthly life, because I choose to live a holy one, governed by you My Lord Jesus, the prince of peace, please have my mind to be saturated with the holy mind of Christ, in my Lord Jesus name.

Finally, I take up the Sword of the Spirit which is the holy word of God, I pray this powerful offensive weapon into my hand, and ask that your holy word would be fitting for every encounter I face. As the enemy gets close to me, please give me the insight, wisdom, and skill to wield the word of God to drive away the enemy, in my Lord Jesus name.

May the enemy and his team flee from me, upon hearing the word of God spoken by the power and direction of the Holy Spirit. Give me the sword of the spirit to cut through the wiles of the devil, so that I may discern the schemes of the enemy when he is near.

With all kinds of prayers, supplication, and intercession I pray to you my Lord God as the one who fights my battles. Now that I’m in your holy powerful armor, I walk away covered and ready to face my day as you go before me, and please protect me in the midst of the spiritual warfare in this unseen world, in my Lord Jesus name.

Thank you my Lord, for the spiritual weapons of armor and prayer that you have given me. It is written no weapon formed against me shall prosper, and you will refute every tongue that accuses me.

Thank you Father God, my Lord Jesus and the Holy Spirit, that I am more than a conqueror in my Lord Jesus. I pray all of this in the mighty name of my Lord God and Savior Jesus Christ, amen.

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Concerned Virginian

Well, this is ** interesting ** in the least —

It appears that the VAERS (Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System), https://vaers.hhs.gov/, is no longer accessible online by the general public (maybe MD’s can still get in to report). Error message of “Hmmm….Can’t reach this page”

“Suspicious dog” all over this one. One wouldn’t be surprised if Becerra ordered VAERS to close down access to the general public. One wonders why.