2021·11·06 Joe Biden Didn’t Win Daily Thread

RINOs an Endangered Species?
If Only!

According to Wikipoo, et. al., the Northern White Rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum cottoni) is a critically endangered species. Apparently two females live on a wildlife preserve in Sudan, and no males are known to be alive. So basically, this species is dead as soon as the females die of old age. Presently they are watched over by armed guards 24/7.

Biologists have been trying to cross them with the other subspecies, Southern White Rhinoceroses (Rhinoceri?) without success; and some genetic analyses suggest that perhaps they aren’t two subspecies at all, but two distinct species, which would make the whole project a lot more difficult.

I should hope if the American RINO (Parasitus rectum pseudoconservativum) is ever this endangered, there will be heroic efforts not to save the species, but rather to push the remainder off a cliff. Onto punji sticks. With feces smeared on them. Failing that a good bath in red fuming nitric acid will do.

But I’m not done ranting about RINOs.

The RINOs (if they are capable of any introspection whatsoever) probably wonder why they constantly have to deal with “populist” eruptions like the Trump-led MAGA movement. That would be because the so-called populists stand for absolutely nothing except for going along to get along. That allows the Left to drive the culture and politics.

Given the results of Tuesday’s elections, the Left will now push harder, and the RINOs will now turn even squishier than they were before.

I well remember 1989-1990 in my state when the RINO establishment started preaching the message that a conservative simply couldn’t win in Colorado. Never mind the fact that Reagan had won the state TWICE (in 1984 bringing in a veto-proof state house and senate with him) and GHWB had won after (falsely!) assuring everyone that a vote for him was a vote for Reagan’s third term.

This is how the RINOs function. They push, push, push the line that only a “moderate” can get elected. Stomp them when they pull that shit. Tell everyone in ear shot that that’s exactly what the Left wants you to think, and oh-by-the-way-Mister-RINO if you’re in this party selling the same message as the Left…well, whythefuckexactly are you in this party, you piece of rancid weasel shit?

Election Cheating

Republicans won…in Virginia, and maybe in New Jersey, and in a lot of local races nationwide (including school boards–very critical in the long term).

If we can’t possibly win without an honest system, and we know the system has not been fixed…uh, what’s up? Seems like a bit of a contradiction.

So I will modify my stance somewhat, in the light of new information: Apparently the automated cheating that’s rather subtle could be overcome. And indeed it was overcome in 2020 as well.

That’s when the Left/Establishment went to good old fashioned blatant ballot-box stuffing, putting up cardboard to block the view into election centers and running ballot after ballot through the machines. To say nothing of the six figure dumps of votes entirely for China Joe and Skanky Hoe.

This time, for whatever reason, they didn’t go that far.

Perhaps it’s just so they can claim “See, Republicans can win elections, so we’re not cheating and Trump was just a Loser.” In which case, I’ll go back to my original stance and say that we cannot win until the election process is fixed. But then I’ll go on to add: unless they decide for tactical reasons to let us win a couple.

So for now, I’ll stick with:

Justice Must Be Done.

The prior election must be acknowledged as fraudulent, and steps must be taken to prosecute the fraudsters and restore integrity to the system. (This doesn’t necessarily include deposing Joe and Hoe and putting Trump where he belongs, but it would certainly be a lot easier to fix our broken electoral system with the right people in charge.)

Nothing else matters at this point. Talking about trying again in 2022 or 2024 is pointless otherwise. Which is not to say one must never talk about this, but rather that one must account for this in ones planning; if fixing the fraud in the system is not part of the plan, you have no plan.

This will necessarily be piecemeal, state by state, which is why I am encouraged by those states working to change their laws to alleviate the fraud both via computer and via bogus voters. If enough states do that we might end up with a working majority in Congress and that would be something Trump never really had.

Lawyer Appeasement Section

OK now for the fine print.

This is the WQTH Daily Thread. You know the drill. There’s no Poltical correctness, but civility is a requirement. There are Important Guidelines,  here, with an addendum on 20191110.

We have a new board – called The U Tree – where people can take each other to the woodshed without fear of censorship or moderation.

And remember Wheatie’s Rules:

1. No food fights
2. No running with scissors.
3. If you bring snacks, bring enough for everyone.
4. Zeroth rule of gun safety: Don’t let the government get your guns.
5. Rule one of gun safety: The gun is always loaded.
5a. If you actually want the gun to be loaded, like because you’re checking out a bump in the night, then it’s empty.
6. Rule two of gun safety: Never point the gun at anything you’re not willing to destroy.
7. Rule three: Keep your finger off the trigger until ready to fire.
8. Rule the fourth: Be sure of your target and what is behind it.

(Hmm a few extras seem to have crept in.)

Spot Prices

Last week:

Gold $1785.10
Silver $23.99
Platinum $1028.00
Palladium $2087.00
Rhodium $15,250.00

This week, 3 PM MT on Friday, markets closed for the weekend

Gold $1819.00
Silver $24.25
Platinum $1042.00
Palladium $2117.00
Rhodium $15,500.00

Everything is UP. Gold has busted $1800. Silver has busted $24. I suspect they’re going to continue upward, for now.

The Distance Ladder

A couple of go-backs

A couple of things I failed to mention last time.

Schwarzschild (the name is German for “black shield,” ironically enough) did his theoretical work in 1915, immediately after Einstein published the theory of general relativity. His solution to the Einstein field equations of general relativity was the first one, in fact. Astrophysicists are still careful to distinguish “Schwarzschild black holes” from rotating black holes. Schwarzschild was killed in action on the Eastern Front in World War I.

There probably is no such thing as an actual non-rotating black hole. Such would have to be formed from a non-rotating massive star (or a nebula with absolutely no rotation, in the case of the supermassive black holes). Remember that even the tiniest rotation will be magnified, and magnified a lot, as the object shrinks down from light years (or tens of trillions of kilometers) across, to star-sized (hundreds of thousands of kilometers) to just a few kilometers in radius, just as the figure skater spins much faster when she pulls her arms in.

Black holes are generally safe…as long as you’re far enough away. If the sun were magically to be replaced by an equal-mass black hole, the Earth would continue in its orbit and not be sucked in. It’s only when you get to within about 3 Schwarzschild radii that you can’t have a stable orbit. (And the Schwarzschild radius is the radius at which the escape velocity is equal to the speed of light.) For the sun the Schwarzschild radius is 2,950 meters (not kilometers, meters). Earth could be made into a black hole too–if you could manage to compress it until its radius is 8.87 millimeters.

Measuring Distances

Astronomers can easily measure the direction of a star. This was being done with surprisingly high precision even before the invention of the telescope. As seen from earth, the sky forms a “celestial sphere” and every star’s position on that sphere can be measured and plotted in star charts. The celestial sphere appears to rotate on an axis (really it’s the earth that rotates on that axis, in the opposite direction), so that defines north and south “poles” on the celestial sphere; and halfway between them is the celestial equator. So you can get something like “latitude” on the celestial sphere, only it’s called “declination” or “Dec.” Longitude is trickier because there’s no objective zero point, but can be handled too. The sun, of course, moves along the celestial sphere following the “zodiac” which is a circle tilted at a 23.5 degree angle to the celestial equator (and again, it’s not the sun that’s really moving, it’s the earth orbiting the sun making the sun appear to move). The place where the zodiac crosses the celestial equator, when the sun is moving from the southern celestial hemisphere into the northern celestial hemisphere, is called “the first point of Aries” and is also the zero “longitude” point by convention. When you see a statement like “Spring will start at 4:46 PM on March 21″ that’s really the time the sun will (appear to) cross through the first point of Aries”. But here’s a wrinkle with regard to celestial longitude: It’s measured not in degrees but in hours. 24 hours makes up the full circle, then those are divided into minutes and seconds just like degrees are. And it’s called “Right Ascension” or “R.A.,” not longitude.

If you remember last week I posted a rather colorful plot of the orbits of some stars at the center of the Milky Way around the supermassive black hole there, plotted on a grid. The grid is marked off in seconds of arc (i.e., the kind of second that is 1/3600th of a degree, not the kind of second that is 1/3600th of an hour of right ascension), with respect to the declination and right ascension of that black hole. That is what those scales mean.

In any case it’s easy to measure this sort of thing; one of the two most manifestly obvious things about a star is what direction it’s in. (The other is how bright it is.)

But that alone will not tell us where the star is. In three dimensional space, you need three coordinates. In a Cartesian (square/cubic) grid, you need x, y, and z. In this case, you’re dealing with spherical coordinates, and you still need three of them (that’s why it’s “three dimensional” space): Right ascension, declination, and distance.

And unlike right ascension and declination, distance to a star is a cast-iron bitch to measure accurately.

I’ve told, here and especially elsewhere, the story of how we first determined the distance from Earth to the Sun (and hence all of the other distances within the solar system, since we already knew the ratios of the distances to each other). This was in the 1760s and it required observations of Venus transiting the Sun (i.e., crossing directly between Earth and the Sun so as to appear as a black dot crossing the fact of the sun, rather than crossing north/”above” or south/”below” the sun as it laps us in its orbit). This distance is called an “Astronomical Unit” (AU), and is currently defined to be 149,597,870,700 meters (in other words if we ever measure it in the future and it turns out the actual distance isn’t quite this, we’ll keep this number for the astronomical unit anyway). (And [Oh By The Way] knowing the average distance from the earth to the sun to the nearest 100 meters is, in and of itself, quite a triumph of measurement.)

With extremely painstaking measurements, best done on photographic plates, it became possible to measure distances to some stars once we knew this. It took until the mid 1800s. What happens is, as the earth revolves around the sun, its position changes by roughly 300 million kilometers, and that will cause nearer stars to appear to shift back and forth in relation to farther stars, just like you can shift your head back and forth and, say, a nearby light pole in a parking lot will appear to move back and forth with respect to the mountains in the background. (Folks in Kansas and especially Florida and Louisiana will have to adjust that example a bit.) This is known as parallax.

If you know how far you are moving your head, and can measure how many degrees along the horizon the pole appears to shift, it’s straightforward trigonometry to determine the distance to the light pole.

Even with the earth moving back-and-forth 300 million kilometers, the parallax of even the nearest star is less than one second of arc. (But note, this is quoted, for historical reasons, with respect to half of the earth’s orbital diameter, i.e., its orbital radius, which is to say, versus a 1 AU baseline, not a 2 AU baseline.) An arcsecond is about the width of a quarter at eighteen thousand feet (over three miles).

It’s possible to compute how far away something has to be to have a (half) parallax of one arc second as seen from a body orbiting with a radius of 1AU. Again, straightforward trigonometry. And, to the nearest meter (it has to be rounded because the formula has pi in it), it’s 30,856,775,814,913,673 meters. Or about 31 quadrillion meters or 31 trillion kilometers. This is called a “parsec” (short for “parallax-second”), and it’s roughly equal to 206,000 AU. (If you consider that Neptune’s orbit is roughly 30 AUs in radius, you can see how truly vast this distance is even compared to our solar system, which is measured in billions of miles. And this is closer than the nearest star.)

Astronomers–and I mean people who do astronomy for a living–think in and use parsecs. You’ve heard of light years, I am sure. That’s the distance light travels in a year. A parsec is actually about 3.26 light years, or alternatively, it takes 3.26 years for light to travel one parsec.

Astronomers talking to the public basically have to multiply everything by 3.26 so they can express it in light years. Why work in parsecs, then? Well, when they measure a parallax, they just have to divide it into 1 arc second to get the distance in parsecs. A 0.5 second parallax, means a two parsec distance, and so on.

The first successful parallax-based distance measurement was of the star Vega (visible low in the west shortly after sunset this time of year; it’s part of the Summer Triangle asterism); its parallax is almost exactly 1/8th of an arc second, so its distance was roughly 8 parsecs.

This was conceptually easy, but parallaxes were so small that by 1900 only 60 stars had had their distances measured. The process sped up in the early 20th century, to be sure…but since even with a small telescope hundreds of thousands of stars are visible, we weren’t going to finish off the list any time soon. Plus, of course, the fact that most of these stars are so distant they couldn’t be measured by the instruments of the time–they were in fact used as the backdrop for the nearer stars to move against. (Even today, with satellites doing the work, we really can’t get past about 1600 light years with this method.)

Clearly, if we were going to measure lots of stellar distances, we’d need another method.

But now for a wrenching change of subject.

The Shape of the Universe

William Herschel (1738-1822) is best known as the discoverer of the planet George. At least, that’s what he wanted to name it, after the King of England, George III.

(I’ll pause now and give you all a chance to quit vomiting at the prospect of naming a planet after that particular asshole.)

This name was not accepted by most astronomers, so instead they named it after every asshole: Uranus. And of course, that probably leads to even more bad jokes than naming it “George” would have. Astronomers school themselves to say “YER in us” instead of “your Anus” when they name that planet, but even that sounds too much like “urinous” (full or redolent of urine). Perhaps they should have gone with “OO rahn us,” probably closer to how the Greeks pronounced that name (father of the Titans) in any case. (And no, I didn’t mean to usurp Wheatie’s word of the day, but if you can find a good use for “urinous” with respect to current events–shouldn’t be that challenging–go right on ahead.)

Anyhow, Herschel did a lot of other things, perhaps the most important of which was discovery of infrared light. But for our purposes today, he was also the first to suggest that the stars, if their three-dimensional positions could be plotted, would form a disc with a central bulge, sort of like some renderings of flying saucers; and that the Sun would not be at the center of this shape.

How did he conclude this? If you get away from city lights (and that was easy to do in his day; nothing was as brightly lit back then as it is now), you will see a faintly glowing cloudy band stretching across the night sky. In fact, this cloudy band runs clear around the celestial sphere, including through the part we cannot see from the United States because it’s too far south. It’s most prominent where it runs through the constellation Sagittarius, but it also runs through Cassiopeia (the “W” in the northern sky) and the northern cross (part of Cygnus), in fact it runs along the long member of the cross. (This part of it should be readily visible shortly after dark…again, if you get the heck away from city lights.)

The Milky Way, looking towards Sagittarius. This is a fairly long exposure; you’d never see it look quite like this with your own eyes.
(This was taken in 2007, so I suspect that bright object just below the brightest part of the Milky Way is Jupiter. Twelve years later, 2019, it’d be back at the same location, and that’s not far from where the Great Conjunction happened the year after that.)

The ancient Greeks, of course, had spotted this band, and had named it γαλαξίας κύκλος (galaxias kyklos) or “milky circle” since the pale faint color suggested milk to them; they even had conjured up a myth that it was actual milk from the breast of Hera, queen of the gods. The Romans called it via lactea which translates directly to “Milky Way.”

When Galileo turned his telescope on the Milky Way, it turned out to be hundreds of thousands, if not millions, of stars that were individually too faint to be seen by the unaided eye, but together turned into this “milky way” stretching across the sky.

What Herschel had done was to catalogue thousands of stars and other deep sky objects, like nebulae, and to note that more of them were in the general direction of Sagittarius than any other direction, and of course most were in the plane of the Milky Way than other directions (such as 90 degrees away from it, where almost no stars are). And exactly opposite of Sagittarius, the Milky Way was thinnest.

That’s what we’d see if all the stars were spread out evenly in a fairly flat disc, and we were inside the disk but off center. We’d see the most stars looking through the center, lots of stars looking any other direction through the disc (the least when looking away from the center, because the distance to the edge of the disc is shortest in this direction) and much less looking perpendicularly to the disc.

The Milky Way is not just brighter in the direction of Sagittarius, but broader, which is why Herschel believed (correctly) there was a central bulge in that direction.

Note that Herschel was working before we could measure the distance to stars (and well before spectroscopy and stellar classification), so he was going entirely off their brightness, assuming that dimmer stars were further away. However, he was still essentially right about the shape of this conglomeration of stars.

It was believed that everything–the entire universe–was within this structure. That included not just stars, but also nebulae, in essence either dark, opaque clouds of gas and dust, or in some cases such clouds brightly lit by nearby stars.

One fairly obvious and prominent nebula is in the sword of Orion; it looks a bit fuzzy to the unaided eye (instead of being a crisp point of light like other things “up there”) but in binoculars it is obviously a glowing cloud of gas lit by stars embedded within it.

In fact, this is a place where stars and planetary systems are forming–right now. This is abundantly clear from observations, including from Hubble Space Telescope images.

Other nebulae had distinctly spiral shapes, like, for instance, this one:

A “spiral nebula” cataloged by Charles Messier in 1753 as M-51. It’s in the constellation Canes Venatici, which in turn is near the constellation Bootes (representing his dogs, Bootes was a herdsman).

And this is pretty much where things sat, clear into the early part of the 20th century. The universe was believed to consist of the Milky Way, surrounded by empty space.

But there were proponents of a different idea, that these spiral nebulae were actually separate galaxies. On April 26, 1920, in fact, there was a debate held at the Smithsonian’s Museum of Natural History; today it is known as the “Great Debate.” Harlow Shapley argued the spiral nebulae were on the outskirts of this galaxy, while Heber Curtis argued that they were in fact, distinct galaxies and therefore very far away, outside of this galaxy.

Note that this was just over a century ago. The issue wouldn’t be settled until 1924.

We have only known about other galaxies definitively for less than a century. Think about that.

How could the people who thought that “spiral nebulae” were in fact separate galaxies outside our own actually prove it? Or alternatively, be made to shut up? Well, the most straightforward way to do that would be to show that they were far, far away–or not.

Which brings me back to pointing out that in astronomy, measuring distances is a cast-iron bitch.

Even with today’s satellite technology, we can barely get parallaxes over 1% of the distance across this galaxy; certainly in 1920 using stone knives and bearskins we’d never be able to prove something was outside the galaxy with parallaxes.

A Standard Candle

But we already had a solution to this.

We go to HAH-vuhd, 1908-1912, and yet another woman, Henrietta Swan Leavitt (1868-1921).

I point out the fact that she was, indeed, a “she” because in those days it was very unusual for women to be involved with the “hard” sciences. How, then, did so many of them end up clustered at Harvard?

As it happens the astronomer Edward Charles Pickering (1848-1919) had developed a method of taking the spectra of multiple stars all at once by putting a prism in front of a photographic plate. He had,over decades, assembled a team of women to go through the data for 220,000 stars. This was primarily because they were cheap labor, but also because even back then women were appreciated for work that required attention to detail. [For instance, the US Mint preferred women for work as adjusters, who’d file excess precious metal off of unstruck planchets.] Annie Jump Cannon, whom we’ve met previously, emerged as their natural leader. The group became known as “Pickering’s Computers” (this was well before the invention of the electricity powered computer) and are now known as the Harvard Computers. They didn’t have doctorates (not by any means) but their contributions to astronomy today are well-regarded.

There were so many photographic plates involved–and back then these were sheets of glass coated with emulsion–that Pickering’s research was said to weigh 120 tons.

Cecilia Payne-Gaposhkin (whom I discussed previously; she discovered the stars were mostly made of hydrogen) was not one of the computers; she actually was a graduate student who worked closely with them.

Henrietta Swan Leavitt, on the other hand, was one of the computers and she established the first “standard candle.”

Clear back in September of 1784, Edward Pigott noticed that the star Eta Aquilae was variable; it would regularly dim, then brighten suddenly, then dim again. It would do so with the same period; every pulsation took the same amount of time, known as the period. (We now know that stars like this actually pulsate in size, like a yo-yo dieter only much more rapidly.) Just a few months later a different astronomer noticed the same for Delta Cephei. The periods range from a few days to a few months.[A digression about these names. There are thousands of stars in the sky visible to the naked eye; countless more visible with a telescope. They can’t all be given unique names (though hundreds have been, everything from Betelgeuse [famous] to Zubenelschamali [not so famous]). So in 1603, just before the invention of the telescope, Johann Bayer came up with a system of labeling the brightest star in a constellation as “alpha” (such as Alpha Orionis–Betelgeuse). Beta would go to the second brightest star and so on. This would be followed by the Latin genitive of the constellation name. So Betelgeuse was “Alpha of Orion,” strictly translated. This is called the Bayer designation, and has been extended since then. Continuing to look at Orion, alpha through kappa, the brightest ten stars: Eight of them have “real” names, one (theta) is actually the Orion nebula, and eta is (as far as Wikipoo knows) nameless. The three belt stars are among the named stars, the four stars of the not-quite-a-rectangle also all have names. Returning to Cepheids, Delta Cephei was designated the fourth brightest star in Cepheus by Bayer.]

There turned out to be an entire class of these variable stars and they became known as Cepheid variables in honor of Delta Cephei. Several dozen had been discovered by the end of the 19th century. Today we know that they are typically stars four to twenty times as massive as the sun, and therefore very bright, up to 100,000 times as bright–but this was not apparent before Henrietta Swan Leavitt studied them.

In 1908 Henrietta Swan Leavitt began measuring the apparent brightness and periods of numerous Cepheids in the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds. Apparently there are thousands of Cepheids in these clouds, though they appear quite faint compared to the ones previously discovered.

The SMC and LMC are patches of milkiness that are quite apparent to the naked eye, provided you are far enough south; they are deep in the southern celestial hemisphere, and the further south an object is, the further south you have to be for it to be above the horizon. The Large and Small Magellanic Clouds were noted by Antonio Pigafetta, who was with Ferdinand Magellan on his voyage (yes, that Magellan, famous for being the first to circumnavigate the Earth in the early 1500s). Of course many had noticed them before, anyone from Australian aborigines to Arabic astronomers and some other early European explorers, but for some reason this guy was able to tell the European scientific community about them and have it “stick.”

Leavitt noticed that the Cepheids in the Magellanic Clouds had an interesting correlation: the brighter they appeared, the longer their periods.

It was logical to suppose that Cepheids in one of the clouds are all at about the same distance from us. Which would mean the brighter ones really were intrinsically brighter than their dimmer cousins. And if the brighter ones had the longer periods…well then!

So what we had was a “standard candle” (Leavitt coined the term), in other words something of known intrinsic brightness. If you could measure the period of a Cepheid, and it had a long period, you knew it was the same intrinsic brightness as one with the same period in the Large Magellanic Cloud. If it looked dimmer, then it was actually further away. If it looked brighter, it was closer. So you could tell the (relative) distance of a Cepheid by measuring its period.

Leavitt published in 1912.

All we needed now was to measure the distance to one Cepheid variable by some other means and we’d know the distance to all of them. Eijnar Hertzsprung (as in “Hertzsprung Russell Diagram”, 1873-1967) measured the distance to several Cepheids by parallax in 1913.

We had our standard candle and were off to the races now.

In 1924, Edwin Hubble (after whom the space telescope is named, 1889-1953) working at the Mt. Wilson observatory in southern California, was able to detect very faint Cepheids in many of the “spiral nebulae,” measure their periods, determine that they were well outside the bounds of “the” “one and only” galaxy, and could therefore establish, once and for all, that the spiral nebulae they were in were actually separate galaxies.

The universe had just gotten bigger. A lot bigger. Some of the galaxies Hubble was able to measure were sixty or so million light years away; which is to say six hundred million trillion kilometers away (which is to say six hundred quintillion kilometers). That’s a lot more than the 100,000 light year diameter of this galaxy, which hitherto had been thought to be the entire universe.

A bunch of those galaxies about fifty or sixty million light years away are in the constellation Virgo, and that group is now known as the “Virgo cluster.”

And there were many, many dimmer “spiral nebulae” in which no Cepheids could be detected at all–presumably because those nebulae were so far away the Cepheids in them were too faint to see. So how big, precisely, is this universe of ours? Certainly at least hundreds of millions of light years!

At the other end of the scale, and most famously, there is a “spiral nebula” in Andromeda. You can see it with your own unaided eye, far away from city lights. (I personally find it hard to see; I have to look away from it slightly to see it. But it certainly shows up in binoculars!) It’s now called the Andromeda Galaxy, thanks to Hubble. It’s about 2 million light years away. The LMC and SMC are much closer, they’re now considered satellite smaller galaxies in orbit about our own galaxy. There are a few other very close galaxies, such as M-33; together with the Andromeda and Milky Way galaxies they make up the imaginatively-named “Local Group.” Twenty quadrillion kilometers may not seem terribly “local” to you, but for galaxies, that’s Standing Room Only and get your elbow out of my eye!

That telescope on Mt. Wilson? It was a monster in its day, with a 100 inch mirror. It still exists today; you can see it on tours during the daytime. It is not, however, used by professional astronomers any more as it’s simply not powerful enough. However, for several thousand dollars a night, you can rent the telescope–though as far as I know that opportunity is only extended to astronomy clubs.

But in terms of its historical impact on our view of the universe, it is probably second only to Galileo’s telescopes. Hubble himself is considered a Giant of astronomy; those astronomy clubs can actually use the same telescope he used.

But Hubble was not done in 1924. If anything, what he went on to do after this was even more important.

Redshifts

Vesto Melvin Slipher (1875-1969), had, back in the 1910s, looked at “spiral neblulae” through a spectroscope and had been able to measure their velocity towards or away from us (the “radial” velocity) by noting the Doppler shift of the spectral lines.

Almost all of them were moving away from us, as indicated by a shift towards longer wavelengths (lower frequencies). This is the famous “red shift” because the lines in the visible spectrum were shifted towards red, the longer wavelengths of visible light. Very few were shifted towards violet (which, for some reason is called a blue shift, not a violet shift). This was peculiar; after all a bunch of objects “out there” should have a pretty random assortment of radial velocities…yet almost all of these spirals were moving away from us, and rather rapidly, too.

For example, M-87 in the Virgo Cluster (this is the one with the really big black hole at its center–but Slipher had no idea about that) is moving away from us at 1284 kilometers per second. Which is pretty doggone fast.

Hubble took this data, combined it with his distance measurements, and made a plot.

And got the surprise of his life.

It turns out that the farther away a galaxy is, the faster it is receding, The main exceptions turned out to be within the Local Group; some of those galaxies actually are headed towards us (like Andromeda, which will collide with this galaxy in about five billion years).

M-87 is 16.4 megaparsecs (million parsecs) away from us which puts it at about 53.5 million light years off.

What is it about the Milky Way galaxy that is repelling almost all of the other galaxies?

Nothing, actually. It turns out that a hypothetical observer in any galaxy will see all of the other galaxies rushing away from him, the further away, the faster.

Hubble was able to determine that for every megaparsec of distance, a galaxy is going to be moving 500 kilometers per second. As it turns out, there were significant problems with using Cepheid variables–it turns out there are two distinct classes of them that behave differently. I’ve ignored that fact up til now. But now, this recession rate is known to be 74 km/second…for each megaparsec of distance. This is known as the Hubble parameter, now. And the fact that further galaxies recede faster is now known as Hubble’s Law.

Bang!

But, run the movie backwards! What happens? Since galaxies twice as far away move twice as fast, if you run the movie backwards, all galaxies come together simultaneously at some point. Which means (if you halt the reverse at this point and start looking at it in forward motion) everything was in one place, then there was a big explosion (or something like that) and all of the pieces got blown away from from the other pieces at some point in the distant past, eventually leading to what we see today.

Time for Einstein and Company to step in.

One thing that was instantly apparent to Albert Einstein when he formulated General Relativity was that it could be applied to the universe as a whole. Einstein believed (as most did in 1915) that the universe was essentially static and unchanging on a large scale. What we see now was pretty much what had been there…back forever.

However, both General Relativity and Newtonian gravity said that if the universe consisted of a bunch of stationary objects, they’d simply attract each other and start to move closer to each other, in exactly the same way that a stationary apple a meter above the floor will, without support, fall.

So Einstein, believing that this wasn’t what was happening (he really didn’t have evidence of that; this was before Hubble), put a fudge factor into his equation, a cosmological constant repulsion that counteracted what would otherwise be the natural inclination of the universe to contract.

Hubble’s discovery was an attitude adjuster for Einstein. The universe was not static and unchanging, it had not always existed. It had instead had a beginning, and from that beginning everything rushed apart. Clearly, ever since then, the galaxies had been slowing down due to their mutual attraction, but also, clearly, they hadn’t come to a halt. With the residual motion evident even today, there was no need for the cosmological constant fudge factor in his equations.

Einstein later considered it the biggest mistake of his life and he was probably right because he didn’t vote for Joe Biden.

[I say that, but perhaps a check of the voter rolls for Princeton, NJ is in order.]

In 1922, Alexander Alexandrovich Friedmann (1888-1925) worked with Einstein’s General Relativity equation, and derived a relationship between the average density of the universe (in kilograms per cubic meter, for instance–and by the way this number is very, very small!), its current expansion velocity, and its acceleration; this equation could be used to determine the future state of the universe (or any past state). You could essentially get the Hubble parameter out of it with the right inputs; and the equation can be rearranged to use the Hubble parameter as one of its coefficients.

The equation makes it clear that the Hubble parameter is not a constant, it can change. And indeed it’s expected to start out at a high value when everything was bunched together, then drop as things slow down over time as galaxies attract each other–exactly the way an apple thrown up into the air slows down and stops.

Another part of the equation is an expression for how fast the Hubble parameter is changing with time.

The big unknown, actually, is the average density of the universe. There is a certain value of it, which will cause the universe to expand forever, but as the time goes to infinity the speeds drop to zero…as if everything were currently moving exactly at escape velocity. This is the critical density, and the actual density could conceivably be one billionth (or a centillionth) of that value, or a billion times as much.

Determining the ratio of the actual density to the critical density has occupied a large part of the efforts of cosmologists over the last century. I had originally written a bunch more on that here…but this article has gotten long enough, and I don’t want to get too historically askew. Suffice it to say that early estimates were less than 1, but more than 0.01, meaning that there didn’t appear to be enough matter in the universe to cause its expansion to slow down and have it recollapse. But these numbers are suspiciously close to 1 when you consider the range of conceivable values is literally infinite.

It appeared at the time as though it was one third of the value, which is close enough to 1 (compared to all of the other possible ratios) to make scientists suspect it really is 1 and we’re just not measuring it right.

But this is general relativity we are dealing with here, not Newtonian mechanics, so the Friedman equation is actually an equation about how much space time is warped. That makes it more than just an equation about escape velocity. And so there are some things about it that are distinctly counter-intuitive.

First off, the galaxies that rushed away from the original point location are not moving through space. Instead, space itself is expanding. Originally, space itself was small; as it expanded all the matter in the universe stretched out with it, and eventually coalesced to form galaxies. (If the galaxies started moving in some different direction after the Big Bang, because they were near some giant cluster and are attracted to it, that’s actual motion. (And today we believe the Milky Way is moving towards the Virgo cluster.)

One consequence of space expanding is that the red shifts that we see are actually due, not to a Doppler effect but rather, to the fact that while the photon was travelling from the distant galaxy to our eyes the space stretched, which stretched the photon into a longer wavelength. One rather odd consequence of this is that a photon, once emitted, will lose energy as it travels through intergalactic space because its frequency is dropping.

Second, space-time across the expanse of the universe has a shape. And it turns out that a value of density lower than the critical density would imply that space has negative curvature, and a value that is higher would imply that space has positive curvature.

Now what the heck does that mean? How can space be curved? Well, we already know it can be warped and that’s what gravity actually is. But this deserves some elaboration.

You were taught in geometry class that the sum of the three interior angles of a triangle is always 180 degrees. That’s a fundamental property of flat space.

But really, this is only true if the triangle is drawn on a flat plane.

If you were to travel from the equator directly to the north pole, make a right-angle (90 degree) left turn, then head back to the equator (traveling south), then, on reaching the equator, make another right-angle left turn (now traveling east), you’d end up back where you started, eventually. You could then turn left 90 degrees and be facing north, like you were in the beginning.

You’ve drawn three straight lines, and are back where you started; that’s a triangle. But every interior angle is 90 degrees so the total of the three is 270 degrees.

This “breaks” that 180 degree rule I just reminded you of, but the earth is not flat, it’s (roughly) spherical. It exhibits positive curvature.

Now imagine a surface like a saddle or a Pringles chip, extended to infinity. (The bell of a tuba also works.) Drawing a triangle on that kind of surface gives you a sum of interior angles less than 180 degrees.

If the universe has too high a density, its expansion will eventually cease (at a time short of infinity) and it will collapse back in on itself again. This would render space-time the four dimensional equivalent of a sphere.

If it’s below the critical density, then even at infinity there’s velocity left to the expansion, and space time is shaped somewhat like that saddle.

If it’s exactly at the critical density, then space time is, on the whole, flat.

How can we tell? Try measuring the interior angles of a really big triangle. Preferably one billions of light years in size. (And believe it or not, today’s scientists think they’ve actually done something like that, and they believe the universe to be flat. But I am WAY ahead of the story here.)

If this makes your head hurt, you’re not alone, believe me.

Anyhow, to return to our narrative, a lot of astronomers did not want to accept that the universe didn’t have a definite beginning. Fred Hoyle, famously, refused to accept it, and died in 2002 still refusing to believe it.

It’s not that he didn’t believe that the galaxies were rushing away from each other, but rather, he imagined that as galaxies grew further apart, new matter in the form of hydrogen atoms was being spontaneously created, which would then coalesce to form new galaxies. This would result in the universe of the distant past, or the distant future, looking about the same as it does today, rather than the galaxies being closer together, or further apart, respectively. This is known as the steady state theory, and from what I can see, virtually no scientist accepts it today. Certainly, we’ve never detected any sign of hydrogen spontaneously being created throughout space, as it would have to be if Steady State were true.

Hoyle, trying to characterize the theory he disagreed with so vehemently, came up with the moniker “Big Bang.” He claims he wasn’t trying to be derisive, but many took it as such. The proponents proudly adopted the term to describe that instant–roughly 11 to 13 billion years ago–when everything in the universe was jammed close together.

(It’s not as if people haven’t, at other times, proudly adopted what was supposed to be a derisive label. Right, oh fellow Deplorables?)

The Big Bang theory was simultaneously worked out by Georges Lemaitre (1894-1966), who was not only an astronomer, but also a Catholic priest. He certainly had no problem with the universe having a beginning! In fact Hubble’s Law is often called the Hubble-Lemaitre’s Law.

There was one minor issue though.

Running the tape backwards, the Big Bang appeared to be ten or eleven billion years old. This was based on extrapolating the current expansion rate backwards, and accounting for how the expansion rate was undoubtedly faster in the past. Yet we also had good reason to believe that globular clusters–groupings of thousands to millions of stars that mostly exist above and below the plane of this galaxy–are at least 13 billion years old. Clearly it’s absurd that globular clusters could be older than the universe that they are part of, so this was a nagging issue for quite some time.

The Next Rung Of The Ladder

With Hubble-Lemaitre’s Law established, we had a new way to measure distance. If we couldn’t see Cepheid variables in some galaxy because it was too far away from us, we could instead measure its red shift, turn a mathematical crank, and get a distance out, one likely to be over a hundred million light years.

In fact, when quasars were first discovered, their red shifts were measured and they were instantly some of the most distant objects ever detected. Some were even billions of light years away. But there is a complication here. The farther away a galaxy is, the further back in time we are looking. If we look at M-87, we are seeing it as it was 53 million years ago, because the light has traveled 53 million light years to get to us, and for the light to be getting to us now, it has to have left M-87 53 million years ago.

Similarly for more distant galaxies. As our telescopes became more and more sensitive, we were looking at galaxies further and further into the past. Quasars, it turns out, all happened well in the past, and now we know they are a “young galaxy” thing as the black holes at the galactic centers devour interstellar gas. In older galaxies, that interstellar gas is as gone as last Thanksgiving’s dinner.

But, if the universe has been slowing down its expansion rate, 53 million years ago, or a billion years ago, the Hubble parameter must have been higher. If we compute a distance to a galaxy using a constant Hubble parameter, we’re introducing an error.

Of course this relies on what is ultimately an assumption: That the Hubble parameter is indeed decreasing. It’s an assumption that seems to make sense, because after all everything in the universe is being attracted to everything else. On the other hand, if you’re a galaxy surrounded by other galaxies, their pulls should all cancel out, and that same is true of all of those other galaxies too–they’re all surrounded by other galaxies.

So scientists wanted to check that assumption–and the data gathered would help nail down the average density of the universe a bit better.

So we needed some other way to measure the distance to a galaxy, and compare it to the distance inferred from its red shift. If the first distance was further, that would imply that the Hubble parameter used to be bigger than it is today (as expected) and we could even, if we did this with enough galaxies with different red shifts, be able to plot how much the Hubble parameter was at any given time in the past.

But to do that, we needed another “Standard Candle,” one a lot brighter than Cepheid variables.

And we eventually found one.

But here, I think, is where I need to pause.

I’m going to shift gears next time. But not really. Because as you investigate the very earliest stages of the universe (I am talking about, say, 1 second after the Big Bang) you find yourself needing to know about particle physics.

So switching from talking about the entire universe, to talking about stuff much smaller than atoms, isn’t as jarring as it might seem at first.

Obligatory PSAs and Reminders

China is Lower than Whale Shit

To conclude: My standard Public Service Announcement. We don’t want to forget this!!!

Remember Hong Kong!!!

If anyone ends up in the cell right next to him, tell him I said “hi.”

中国是个混蛋 !!!
Zhōngguò shì gè hùndàn !!!
China is asshoe !!!

China is in the White House

Since Wednesday, January 20 at Noon EST, the bought-and-paid for Joseph Biden has been in the White House. It’s as good as having China in the Oval Office.

Joe Biden is Asshoe

China is in the White House, because Joe Biden is in the White House, and Joe Biden is identically equal to China. China is Asshoe. Therefore, Joe Biden is Asshoe.

But of course the much more important thing to realize:

Joe Biden Didn’t Win

乔*拜登没赢 !!!
Qiáo Bài dēng méi yíng !!!
Joe Biden didn’t win !!!

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scott467

This poor guy, he could have just flown to Mexico and walked back across the border!

Please

Maybe he could have just learned better Spanish and identified as a South American, showed up to ICE with a fake name saying he’s from south of the border and ask for money. I bet he wouldn’t be the first.

Imagine your new job as a ‘fake alien’ reporting to several regional ICE stations as a different IA at each place, then start collecting payments from each station.

The Brandon Administration makes it all possible …

Last edited 24 days ago by Please
Valerie Curren

Border Crisis Actor 😉

eilert

epe Lives Matter
@PepeLivesMatter17
3h
Clay Higgins gives an inspiring speech.
We will not comply. https://gab.com/emoji/1f1fa-1f1f2.svg
“Some of us are free Americans and we would rather die on our feet than live on our knees. If you want to get a vaccine get it. If you don’t, don’t. Freedom is what’s at stake and some of us are prepared to carry that fight with every drop of our blood.”

https://twitter.com/RepThomasMassie/status/1456719255

Wolf Moon

This is a hugely winning concept. Visualize REPUBLICAN CONTROL and VACCINE AMNESTY.

ForGodandCountry

I take serious issue with your use of the word “amnesty”, whose definition is…

“an official pardon for people who have been convicted of political offenses.”

Political “mandates” are not law….which is precisely why the dirty rats have been playing games with them, circumventing lawsuits.

Using the word “amnesty” plays right into the disgusting, vile political left’s verbal hands.

FUCK THOSE LOUSY BASTARDS.

For more than two decades we’ve been hearing “my body, my choice” from those filthy people. Now they wanna tell us “your body, our choice.” Well, fuck that!!!

The filth have even changed the definition of “vaccine” now in order to carry on their verbal games.

If you want to use the word “amnesty” that’s your right. But I think you’re making a terrible mistake in choosing to use that word.

Wolf Moon

True! But we need ONE WORD that works the same but better.

Maybe….

VACCINATION REPARATION.

scott467

“Maybe….
VACCINATION REPARATION.

_____________

Maybe….

The Lethal Injection REJECTION.

Linda

h/t Pat

TheseTruths
Grandmaintexas

A short and delightfully spiteful profile on Red Jen.

“No one with a spine should take instruction on “civility” from such a feckless cretin or anyone who enjoys her act. If we are to re-learn civic excellence, it will not be from a movement whose moral framework consists of slander and self-satisfaction. Remember that in 2022 and 2024 when they call you a fascist or a bigot or a domestic terrorist or whatever: these are people who think Jen Psaki is a good person. Their opinion about your morals literally doesn’t matter at all.”

https://americanmind.org/salvo/jen-psaki-hates-you/

Deplorable Patriot

Is this permission to be just and eensy weensie bit B!+C#y when it comes to Red Hen Jen?

Valerie Curren

Anyone who wants to be a B doesn’t need permission! 😉

Valerie Curren

LOL!

Grandmaintexas

But of course. 😁

Cuppa Covfefe

And, softly playing in the background is “Your cretin heart, will tell on you”….. 🙂

Happy go lucky

😂 😂 😂 😂

It’s true though

Grandmaintexas

You crack me up. 😁

ForGodandCountry

LMAO!

Do anyone really care what a leftist says about them anymore?

I stopped caring almost 20 years ago and consider a leftist’s negative moral judgement of me a compliment.

Aubergine

If a leftist thought well of me, I would be taking a hard personal assessment to see where exactly I had gone wrong.

Their bad opinion is an affirmation of my basic decency as a human being.

Gail Combs

Honey Badgers don’t give a 💩 and neither do Deplorables.

Name calling is the last refuge of small minded losers.

Linda

Tore Says +
Forwarded from Marjorie Taylor Greene

Last night we toured the DC jail.

My staff and I are writing a full report this morning on our 3+ hour long tour.

I’ve never seen human suffering like I witnessed last night.

While some were shown to us in seemingly beneficial programs, others were in tortuous lockdown.

Some inmates were receiving continuing education classes, others were truly suffering from long stays in solitary confinement for “bad behavior.”

I’ll never forget hearing their screams.

This was in a different part of the jail, not the J6 part.

Being alone surely is hell.

At what seemed the end of our tour as we were being led toward the exit, we had not seen the J6 defendants yet.

I asked to see them & was told it was not part of my tour.

I demanded to see them and would have gone scorched earth if I was not allowed and was making it known.

Phone calls were made & permission was given.

We then were taken to another section of the jail and entered the Patriot wing.

I was greeted by men with overwhelming cheers who rushed out to meet me with tears streaming down their faces.

They have felt forgotten & hopeless.

It was like walking into a prisoner of war camp and seeing men who eyes can’t believe someone had made it in to see them.

They are suffering greatly.

Virtually no medical care, very poor food quality, and being put through re-education which most of them are rejecting.

Our detailed report will outline everything we saw in every area of the jail we were allowed to see, on behalf of all inmates.

I am committed to ending this political war and seeing that our justice system is never used against Americans as a political weapon ever again.

I am also beginning a plan for real prison reform.

Our nation is broken and our people are divided.

It’s time to fix it.

Wolf Moon

Very honestly, if ANYBODY – the US Military – “domestic terrorists” – the US Marshalls – or even PUTIN’S TROOPS – went in there and liberated those people – I would call them heroes. DoJ (which includes FBI) baiting in Trump supporters, entrapping them with the assistance of ANTIFA and FIB plants – and then arresting, imprisoning and “re-educating” them – it just deserves everything we threw at fucking HITLER.

ForGodandCountry

Don’t forget…..the lousy, filthy, vile political left WANTS an actual hot, shooting civil war.

Right now.

But…

”Never fight a battle on the ground your enemy chooses.“
Sun Tzu

They may well wind up getting what they want, but it will be when WE choose the time and place.

Karma is a cold, nasty, hard bitch.

Wolf Moon

EXACTLY.

Ozzytrumpster

Be careful what you wish for

Grandmaintexas

FIB plants abound. Ground report coming next week.

Texas is a battleground.

Wolf Moon

WOW!!!

wheatie

Hey, boss.
I’m still waiting on my computer to be fixed.
 😫 
Our computer doctor is waiting on a part.

I am so sorry… I won’t be able to do Monday’s open thread.
 😞  😧 

Wolf Moon

No problem! I’ll handle it!

Valerie Curren

Whole Wheatie, Wolf-style!!!

cthulhu

You did a GREAT job last week!!!!

…but now you’ll have to live up to it. (No pressure.)

Wolf Moon

Just finished!

cthulhu

Looking forward to it!

Wolf Moon

It’s new, yet still not quite wheatie, and thus different enough that people will hopefully enjoy but tire quickly of this “New Coke”, and thus demand “classic wheatie” as soon as possible! 😉

I ain’t lookin’ to take over this job for the long haul!

cthulhu

Sorry that your compuwidget problems continue.

What sort of part?

Wolf Moon

All done – no worries now!

Cuppa Covfefe

Breakfast of Trumpians! 😀

[Hope that part isn’t on a boat somewhere! There’s probably a few of us with *cough* parts bins that might have one or a few…. D’ya need a zip drive? (just kidding, zip drives are no fun: https://www.grc.com/tip/codresearch.htm) Or some IDE cables? S-100 bus parts? 😎 ]

Wolf Moon

Note what happened to citizen journalists who were investigating Ray Epps (story in 11/7 open, I believe). There’s plants, and there’s probably plants about plants, etc.

Valerie Curren

This comes to mind!
comment imagev

Wolf Moon

AMEN!!!

Valerie Curren

Yes!

RDS

Thank God for MTG.
Now, Kevin McCarthy, you spineless DeepState RINO turncoat, YOU GO AND TOUR THE JAIL, OK?

Gail Combs

AMEN!!!

Deplorable Patriot

Fine print: it’s the mandate for companies with on hundred employees, not the federal contractors.

https://twitter.com/ElectionWiz/status/145706712456913306

Deplorable Patriot

Nordic walking pole experiment update:

Ahem.

I think I finally got the technique closer, BUT have decided that I need a different walking surface. Fortunately, our beloved crown jewel of city parks, Forest Park, has a flat, fine gravel track. One side of it is pretty convenient to me. So, I guess I’ll just have to venture out a couple, three afternoons a week for now. My shoulders need a rest after today.

TheseTruths

Being unfamiliar with Nordic pole walking, I looked it up. Looks like a good workout.

comment image?format=1500w

https: //images.squarespace-cdn.com/content/v1/5890003bbe65947e55e214da/1488854854148-GUXZE1IIF8GJXP215BX4/image-asset.png?format=1500w

Last edited 25 days ago by TheseTruths
Deplorable Patriot

Essentially, I walk at least an hour M-Sa weather and schedule permitting, and need to add some upper body weight resistance. Gotta keep the bones strong, etc. This seemed like something less likely to cause injury.

para59r

And help keep the occasional dog who breaks free from home at bay.

Weighted gloves could be considered as an option.

If one walked at night there is virtual no limit to the amount of hand and arm movements, gloved or ungloved available too you and many will bring your middle body into play. Other than that it is primarily the shoulders that get the work out if done gloveless but the rest of the upper body still benefits.

If done during daylight it will bring stares but an occasional break out of several repetitions as you walk along should not draw too much attention. Also if multiple movements are just done with one arm that should not bring too much attention.

Movements can be done with a slight tensing of the hands and or arms, or no tension at all.

Movements are normally led by a portion of the hand (heel, palms, knuckles, wrists, sides. finger tips), hand can be closed, curled or open.

Movements can be categorized as pulling, pushing, extending, contracting, sweeping, grasping, punching, slicing, swatting, punching, chopping etc…

Movements can be with one hand/arm, (ideal for daylight when notice is not desired) or two hands/arms done together, separate or in tandem. Done to front, side, back, diagonal, low, high or over head.

The more upper body involved will naturally slow the speed of the walk some. to maintain the speed is to increase the intensity of the walk.

Arms can realize full extension or partial extension. In full extension is where you can get some middle body involvement. It’s also where you should be aware of improper strain and be prepared to lessen tension or move on to another movement.

Repetitions in movement can be one to five, three optimal, more is okay. And you can always come back to ones that feel comfortable after other sets.

Injury will normally involve the rotator cuff of the shoulder so one should always be aware when something does not feel right and continue with something else.

There are no videos on this that I’ve ever seen, but consider it to be like a weight lifting session, tai chi, kung fu, dance, ballet, or even repetitious movements in house hold chores or what have you, but just for the upper body as you walk normally with the lower body.

A handy mental guide, is if you can go up, you can go down, if you can go right you can go left, if you can go in you can go out, if you can do it on one side, you can do it on the other side, if you can go forward you can go back… etc… simple yin and yang and it need only be a small part of your normal walk.

Last edited 24 days ago by para59r
Valerie Curren

Hubby did a 50+ mile backpacking trip w/ buddies a couple months ago in the UP (Michigan’s Upper Peninsula) & using poles was Essential on the rugged terrain! He said “it would have been Twice As Hard without them!”

singingsoul1

I have been doing this for years. Good for the back and knees. Of course also for other parts of the body. I walk with my dog I have a leash that wraps over my shoulder and she is aware how far she needs to stay away from me. She does not pull and heels wonderfully that helps 🙂
One can find clubs . I organized a group in Maryland. I am not sure if they still walk some people were already mid eighties.

RF121

I see people using this all the time in the foothills I hike above Denver. I thought they were just for people whose balance sucked. Who knew.

singingsoul1

In Europe one sees this a lot. There are also city walkers. Yes as we get older it helps to keep the balance. I even took mine on a plane trip. I have a case and put them in the overhead compartment. Funny they let me on because they have spikes but also have soft tips for them.

Gail Combs

FWIW, I found I could cross country ski without pain after I mangled my back, long before I could walk without pain. Standing is still a problem.

singingsoul1

Standing is hard even on a bad knee. I rather walk.

Itswoot

Maybe something to look at is adding closed cell foam to the inside of your shoes to give added cushioning. When I had a foot tendon injury, I used both a yoga mat and thin camping pad to make full-length inserts. Lay the pad on the floor and step on it. Take a magic marker and trace the outline of both of your feet. Cut out with a pair of scissors and trim to fit as needed.

(I’m sorry. My MacGyver nature compels me to jump in and try to help with solutions)

Deplorable Patriot

I actually have a 12mm insert on one side due to a leg length issue. That much height is asking for trouble.

Gail Combs

So you already know good shoes are an absolute MUST. Hubby and I both had plantar fasciitis. Good shoes and inserts took care of the problem.

singingsoul1

When I tore my ankle tendons I used as physical therapy meadows. The uneven grass helped my ankle a lot. Good walking not jogging shoes when walking with the sticks is also helpful.

Itswoot

I can’t remember which tendon I injured, but it was one that went from back to front. For awhile, it was too painful to walk any way but on the front balls of my feet, and only for short distances. It became an ordeal to go to the grocery store when I was running out of food.

P.S. I just saw Gails new post. It may have been plantar fascitis that I had. It rings a bell. I got the injury mainly from working on a roof with a 12/12 pitch, and climbing up and down six sections of scaffold to work on a fireplace. Major stress on the feet, despite wearing decent work boots.

singingsoul1

Great. 🙂 Takes some getting used too the height is also important.
Good for you 🙂

scott467

New Political Moonshine article:

Quit Sticking Your Finger in the Light Socket: Continued Lessons in the Illusion of Choice and the Perpetuity of Institutional Preservation
Intro: “The lessons in the illusion of choice, which is a driving force behind the perpetuity of institutional preservation, continue to be downloaded into the minds of the American public through the elections of 2021 and just as if 2018 and 2020 never happened; at least outside of the official narrative, which reads more bizarrely than any good movie script to be found these days.

It’s as if the Speaker of the House didn’t execute an operation to entrap and politically imprison a sliver of a fragment from the majority segment of the U.S. population. A sliver that wasn’t wise enough to see the entrapping danger lying before it. In gray and effectively functioning in the undercurrent and away from such environments is a much better option.

This idea that somehow we just forget about 2020 and “Get out and vote!” in 2021 without first remedying the irrefutably stolen 2020 election is a flawed one. It’s as flawed as repeatedly sticking your finger in the light socket expecting not to get shocked each time. Allow me to explain and demonstrate exactly how this is and with old and new evidence in support.”

[continued at title link above]

TheseTruths

He has good insights, but I have quibbles with the article. Here are his concluding words:

Durham is clean-up and Younkin is anything but a win.

America, for the sake of us all, quit sticking your finger in the light socket.

They might be true. I don’t know enough about Durham to say, and I don’t think this article presents actual evidence of Durham’s intentions. He might be “tasked” with only going after low hanging fruit to partially satisfy the people, but we don’t know that. At this point, I’m taking what I can get, because what is the alternative? Not have any investigation into Russian collusion and the 2016 election at all? I’ll pass on that.

As for Youngkin, the article presents more evidence of shady connections and claims that he is controlled opposition. And he very well might be. So again, what is the alternative? We had two choices on Tuesday: a sleazy Dem operative who thinks parents should have no say in their kids’ education, and a Republican who says the right things but who might not be exactly what we think. Given that scenario, I will take the Repub every time.

But what the article omits, and what I took issue with a couple of days ago with an article by SD, is the peripheral effects of the Youngkin and other wins in Virginia and elsewhere. We got a MAGA lieutenant governor in Virginia. We took the statehouse, etc. Of equal importance, the Left and the Dems and media are completely demoralized, the Biden “presidency” is in more of a free fall than before, Pelosi is on the ropes, and Dem Congressmen are thinking twice about their votes and what effect they will have on their political careers.

So yes, we have to watch Youngkin and try to replace him with someone better if need be. But voting for him was not the fault of any MAGA Virginian; it was their duty. In so doing, they have advanced our cause and encouraged people to keep fighting. IMO, that in itself is a win.

Please

Concerning Durham, I believe this is a good analysis:

comment imageECONCHICKINTELCHICK
@ECONCHICKINTELCHICK
1d
·

INTELLIGENCE LAWS HAVE NO TEETH WHEN IT COMES TO ABUSE BY THOSE BIG FISH.

None.

I’ve tried to tell citizens this for 5 years straight.

Most of you know how bad the Patriot Act is when it comes to abuse. But that’s only one of them.

WE HAVE TO FORCE CONGRESS NEXT YEAR TO CHANGE THEM.
48 likes
4 comments
20 reposts

singingsoul1

Very insightful.

TheseTruths

Thanks!

para59r

Another possibility talked about here briefly is that Durham at a minimum could be there only to gently side line the Clinton machine so as not to co-opt Mr Global’s intentions. That’s to say the elites are tired of her and no longer trust her, but can’t completely expose her least she exposes them.

Last edited 24 days ago by para59r
Please

That was a buzzkill …

trumpismine

A comment from a reader on the story of Project Veritas raided by the kgb/stasi fbi:
.

Back in the day, I was one of the OG cybercops who worked with an FBI “SAFE (Sexual Assault Felony Enforcement) TEAM” investigating child sexual abuse/exploitation. Back when the FBI were among the good guys here on our planet we would have been investigating Joe Xiden and not the Veritas journalist who exposed that creep.  

Furthermore, directing your attention to 42 U.S. Code § 2000aa – “Searches and seizures by government officers and employees in connection with investigation or prosecution of criminal offenses, (a) Work product materials Notwithstanding any other law, it shall be unlawful for a government officer or employee, in connection with the investigation or prosecution of a criminal offense, to search for or seize any work product materials possessed by a person reasonably believed to have a purpose to disseminate to the public a newspaper, book, broadcast, or other similar form of public communication, in or affecting interstate or foreign commerce; but this provision shall not impair or affect the ability of any government officer or employee, pursuant to otherwise applicable law, to search for or seize such materials…”

Yep, Christopher Wray is looking more and more like a Deep State weasel who deserves to resign and be prosecuted along with the rest of ’em.

Let’s go Brandon!

trumpismine

Fog of War
@FogofWar
·26m

How to define a massively bloated congress:

– The entire US Constitution contains approximately 7 thousand words.
– The average single congressional bill today is well in excess of 1 million words.

Gail Combs

Actually I think for the next 20 years Congress should review the laws on the books and do NOTHING BUT DELETE LAWS.

cthulhu

The fact is that a legislature could meet on Day One and pass the Ten Commandments. That’s 80% of 6000 years of Judeo-Christian wisdom.

They could meet on Day Two and enact a Republic. That gets you about 80% of 2000 years of Roman wisdom. They could meet on Day Three and base our laws on English Common Law, which is about 80% of 500 years of British wisdom.

They could follow the US Constitution on Day Four, which arguably would give us more “wisdom” than we enjoy today.

What can they do the second year?

I mean, it’s all downhill from there, isn’t it? They have to legislate, because they’re Legislators…..but all the good laws would already be “taken” — meaning that they could only create new laws at all if they were bad ones. Similarly, the sphere of Federal activities must be continually overinflated, lest the entire bureaucracy have nothing left to justify its existence.

cthulhu

If I were looking for a major Constitutional reform, I would create a 3rd chamber of the Legislature.

The House is meant to represent the People.

The Senate is meant to represent the States.

I would propose a 3rd chamber, The Fisc, who has to pay for all this crap. Each taxpaper would get a vote per each dollar paid, whether they were a citizen or a corporation. They could get a vote card upon receipt of each Federal tax return.

cthulhu

Each tax return….whether for income or excise taxes….

Ozzytrumpster

on the rhinos. Parthenogenesis is more common than previously believed. Now we have DNA testing

https://academic.oup.com/jhered/advance-article/doi/10.1093/jhered/esab052/6412509

Last edited 24 days ago by Wolf Moon
Ozzytrumpster

Bwahahahah
No one reads the terms of service…..
Amazon Web services
https://aws.amazon.com/service-terms/
“42.10 Acceptable Use; Safety-Critical Systems. Your use of the Lumberyard Materials must comply with the AWS Acceptable Use Policy. The Lumberyard Materials are not intended for use with life-critical or safety-critical systems, such as use in operation of medical equipment, automated transportation systems, autonomous vehicles, aircraft or air traffic control, nuclear facilities, manned spacecraft, or military use in connection with live combat. However, this restriction will not apply in the event of the occurrence (certified by the United States Centers for Disease Control or successor body) of a widespread viral infection transmitted via bites or contact with bodily fluids that causes human corpses to reanimate and seek to consume living human flesh, blood, brain or nerve tissue and is likely to result in the fall of organized civilization.”

TheseTruths

LOL

Please

LOL? … or prescient?

maybe they know something … I mean look at Brandon … talk about reanimated human corpse

TheseTruths

You do have a point…🧟‍♂️

trumpismine

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RAC

Supposedly result of chicom flu or the clot shot, in march 2020 I had some weird thick nose bleeds but not a fraction as bad as that, not by a long way.

Link disabled with ***

https***://www.bitchute.com/video/V93oRlh9X062/

Grandmaintexas

This is so disturbing.

Wolf Moon

Here is is as a spoiler.

Massive Nosebleed Allegedly From Clot Shot

TheseTruths

I would wonder what was going on in the rest of my body if I experienced that.

Wolf Moon

Absolutely!!!

cthulhu

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Gingersmom2009

Just tossing this out. So there’s the order of some sort by AG/Gov in Nebraska forbidding mandates and allowing docs to prescribe Ivermectin off-label. I wonder if CVS/Walgreens/Rite-Aid are filling the Rx’s in Nebraska, or are they refusing to obey the AG’s order? And if they’re filling them there, what rationale are they using NOT to fill them in NJ? This sounds like something one could sue over.

Last edited 24 days ago by Gingersmom2009
kalbokalbs

Betting Nebraska folks are having NO issues getting IVM scripts filled.

Valid IVM script n NJ refused? Regardless of pharmacy, sue the bastids. Make an example out of the pharmacy / pharmacist.

wowohwow1528

SteveinCo
Great Saturday open thank you very much, good reading 😉👍🏻🇺🇸❤️🇺🇸

Sadie Slays

This is the image the media is using for that Houston concert stampede. It’s a giant eyeball surrounded by a pit of fiery hell. I strongly suspect this was a deliberate Satanic sacrifice, especially if the deaths happened after midnight (11/6 = 11 * 6 = 66). In fact, the media straight up wants you to associate it with hell. Literally the third paragraph:

“It was like hell,” mentioned Nick Johnson, 17, who nonetheless had his live performance bracelet on as he spoke Saturday morning. “All people was simply within the again, attempting to hurry to the entrance.”

comment image

They sure are busy with the sacrifices lately. 

TheseTruths

Interesting. I don’t know anything about the artists at the concert. They might be right in league with this.

ForGodandCountry

You ever stop to think that might be because they are losing, panicked, and know hell is coming for them?

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Wolf Moon

They are definitely fear-mongering and ginning up their usual stuff.

Here is that article – CNBC – they’re herding the sheep, just like at the concert.

https://www.msn.com/en-us/news/crime/officials-confirm-eight-people-including-two-teens-are-among-the-dead-after-houston-music-festival-stampede/ar-AAQoMpr

Cuppa Covfefe

Used to happen at soccer/football matches, e.g. in South America, where the fans would rush the gates, or, in rare cases, the stands weren’t able to bear the load (dynamic, probably)…

Another day, another disaster. Libtard/Satanic/Leftist/DEMONRAT (but I repeat myself) “opportunity”…

Now they’ll ban guitars…

TheseTruths

From Australia:

https://citizenfreepress.com/breaking/photo-of-the-day-from-melbourne/

I love how freedom-lovers pick up on each other’s memes around the world.

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Wolf Moon

OMG – love it!!!

TheseTruths

https://www.thegatewaypundit.com/2021/11/spire-gas-company-warns-st-louis-customers-potential-outages-winter-courts-block-pipeline-illinois-missouri/

Spire Gas Company Warns St. Louis Customers of Potential Outages this Winter After Courts Block Pipeline from Illinois to Missouri

The Spire gas company warned of possible outages this winter after the federal government shut down a pipeline from Illinois into St. Louis, Missouri.

The US Supreme Court failed to issue a stay on the Spire pipeline weeks ago. Now Spire is warning customers of potential shortages this winter.

“Back in June, the U.S. Court of Appeals ruled that the approval for the pipeline in 2018 was unlawful, leaving some customers worried about the future…The pipeline is currently only cleared to operate until Dec. 13. After that, Spire will still be able to deliver gas to customers, but during emergencies involving equipment or extreme weather, the shutdown will limit their options in providing uninterrupted services to customers.”

Gail Combs

Welcome to the Soviet Socialist States of America.

Cuppa Covfefe

And all those rail tankers will be “Warren Buffet-ed” to Missouri, putting more money in the GEB cabal’s pockets… We only have to deal with Rootin’ Tootin’ Putin and Nordstream II 🙂 Oh, and a long cold winter, it’s said (Joe Bastardi et. al.)…

[P.S. Power Grab over at chiefio’s was asking after Ivermectin alternatives in the W.O.O.D. “column” and asked after you…]….

Seems a lot of folks are looking for it…if only I knew someone who used the drench stuff over here…

Gail Combs

🤔🤓😋

Gail Combs

DARN!!!
Now I can not comment on Chiefio because of the password mess created by WordUnimpressed here.

If you or someone could forward this:

Someone at Wolfies said you guys need the info on the Drench that cured my Long Haulers Covid.

It was Moxidectin marketed as Cydectin

“Cydectin oral drench for sheep is a ready-to-use solution containing 0.1% moxidectin. ”

<a href=”https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.05.17.444467v1.full.pdf”>Moxidectin and ivermectin inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication in Vero E6 cells but not in
human primary airway epithelium cells</a>

I roped (OK quit laughing) and held 25 goats which took about 3 to 4 hours. Hubby is not very fast when it comes to measuring out doses of wormer and ‘Covexin’ vaccine for each animal. We also trimmed hooves as needed. So I had goat spit and Cydectin on my hands for at least a couple of hours. My ‘Asthma’ has been gone ever since. That has been 5 months and my last O2 check was 98% compared to the 92% to 94% I was running before that.

There is no way I could use gloves to handle those animals. I had enough trouble roping left handed with a right handed lariat and snubbing down flying Bucks who weighed as much as I do. (Two of the three are now inhabiting the freezer.)

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

I do not dare any more tries to correct the mess or I will muck up my ability to comment here.

kalbokalbs

Done. Hope the post matches your intentions. Added Barnhadt link at the end.

Post is under Chiefio’s weekly Aussie article.

Last edited 24 days ago by kalbokalbs
Gail Combs

Thank you very much. The guys will see it. The activity there is light enough.

kalbokalbs

Post shows for me anyway. In moderation. In time, E.M. Smith or someone will release if it isn’t already visible for all..

Cuppa Covfefe

Someone posted it under W.O.O.D. too (underwood? I had one of their typewriters)… Looks like chiefio is bailing out of KA too… and he has more articles on the trucksaster that is SoCal…

Sort of “the disasters will continue until morale improves”..

Here the sheeple need to be drenched with common sense and logic… surrounded by sheeple in the extended family… sigh…
Getting tired of banging my head on the proverbial wall. And they’re signed up for the boosters… grrrrrrrrr….

scott467

“I roped (OK quit laughing)”

____________

😁

Gail Combs

The beasties are VERY GOOD at ducking….
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Cuppa Covfefe

Duck, and Cover 😀

Wolf Moon

Do you have your browser remember your passwords? If you changed your password here, you may need to change it on the other site, too.

Yeah, I know it’s a mess, but it’s best to confront password issues, IMO.

Everybody’s individual situation is different, though. I can only tell you how we do it here.

cthulhu

DePat and I are firm believers in paper passwords, with no passwords stored online anywhere.

Cuppa Covfefe

Me three…

(and none of the 2**n-1 stickies around here have passwords on them 🙂 ), Actually that’s true – I keep a few safe copies in separate places and maintain them.

No passwords stored on PCs anywhere here either (and we have a museum bunch of them)…

singingsoul1

We are there in so many ways most people have no clue. I am not talking about people here everyone is informed. I am speaking about the 30-50 crowed who not take time because life is still good for them.

singingsoul1

St Louis can get so cold in winter. I pray it will not happen and they have enough gas for people to stay warm.

Gail Combs

If there is a chronic lack of gas/coal/electirc for heating this winter there is going to be a MAJOR BACKLASH against the ‘Green New Deal’ pushers.

Most run of the mill Lefties are spoiled rotten BRATS looking for freebees and not committed Communists. They are NOT going to take kindly to rising food prices, empty store shelves AND freezing their buns off.

Cuppa Covfefe

Yep. And if Uncle Vlad gets the urge to shut off Nordstream I and/or II, there’ll be a TON of angry, boiling hot but freezing sheeple. And then the fur will fly…

mollypitcher5

Gail Combs

I think Gab and Gettr have similar ‘help wanted’ sections.

mollypitcher5

I need to try and explore Gettr. Twitter sux

para59r

Found this low in the responses to tweet. Not sure what it is or if it has any validity.
https://twitter.com/jjnnop/status/1456688497151160321?s=20

Goes to this story. https://www.conservativebeaver.com/2021/11/05/ceo-of-pfizer-arrested-charged-with-fraud-media-blackout/
This story has a comment section. Seems some debate if story is real or not, but not finding any disclaimers to being a parody/satire site.

#Pfizergate apparently started to trend on 4 Nov. However caution Pfizer stock climbed 10% on the 5th. That said though, the story is dated the 5th.

https://twitter.com/search?q=#Pfizergate&src=typeahead_click

Last edited 24 days ago by para59r
Gail Combs

Not a parody site.

Conservative News. Canadian Style.

The Conservative Beaver has been informing Canadians for over 10 years.

Starting in a U of O dorm room, eventually spreading through Montreal as an underground newspaper. We’ve now become available online for consumers Canada-wide.

We provide original articles, as well as aggregate news from your favourite alternative sources.

We don’t just talk about conservative news. We bring you the stories that matter. The ones that you won’t hear about on the mainstream networks. That’s why we’re here. To give you a different point of view, and to keep you informed.

Run by a small team of volunteers across Canada. Looking to lend your skills?

Email ConservativeBeaver@tutanota.com



We are self-funded, and have not accepted any grants for this project.

https://www.conservativebeaver.com/about/

Wolf Moon

Still not convinced either way yet!

Linda

Ha ha ha!

h/t Boondocksaint1

marymorse

BREAKING: Biden's tyrannical vaccine mandate for businesses was just halted in a federal court by a plaintiff named BRANDON. 😂

— Jason D. Meister 🇺🇸 (@jason_meister) November 6, 2021

Wolf Moon

“Let’s Go, Brandon!”

marymorse

Apologies for the double post. Here’s one I haven’t seen yet:

For instance, I heard Dr. Boom Boom von Tick Tock claim he didn't really know Igor Danchenko, his Brookings colleague who was recently indicted for some of his lies in the Russiagate scandal. But obviously he (@benjaminwittes) was a huge player in the operation.

— Mollie (@MZHemingway) November 6, 2021

Wolf Moon

Wittes leads to Brennan and Comey.

cthulhu

I see this post at Insty — https://pjmedia.com/instapundit/483638/ — that says, “NASA plans to use the ‘lessons learned’ from PRIME-1 to prepare for a more ambitious lunar rover mission, the Volatiles Investigating Polar Exploration Rover (VIPER), which will also land at the south pole in 2023. In September, the agency announced VIPER’s landing site would be just west of Nobile, a crater near the moon’s south pole.”

….and my mind immediately goes:

“It came out of the sky, landed just a little west of Nobile,
Verxzot fell out of his tractor, couldn’t b’lieve what he feel.
Laid on the ground and shook, a-fearin’ for his life,
Then he ran all the way to town, screamin’ ‘it came out of the sky!’

A crowd gathered ’round and a scientist said it was Earth gas
Zeegorp made a speech ’bout raisin’ the Mars tax
Clergy said, “Woe, the Lord has come”
Sinners rushed out and they made film
Popular leaders said it was lunatic plot

Oh, the news writers came and made Verxzot a national hero
Networks promised him a worldwide network show
Metius said, “Put the thing in the Pool Room”
Clergythings said, “No, it needs its own dome.”
And Verxzot said, “It’s mine and you can have it for seventeen million.”

“It came out of the sky, landed just a little west of Nobile,
Verxzot fell out of his tractor, couldn’t b’lieve what he feel.
Laid on the ground and shook, a-fearin’ for his life,
Then he ran all the way to town, screamin’ ‘it came out of the sky!'”