2021·11·06 Joe Biden Didn’t Win Daily Thread

RINOs an Endangered Species?
If Only!

According to Wikipoo, et. al., the Northern White Rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum cottoni) is a critically endangered species. Apparently two females live on a wildlife preserve in Sudan, and no males are known to be alive. So basically, this species is dead as soon as the females die of old age. Presently they are watched over by armed guards 24/7.

Biologists have been trying to cross them with the other subspecies, Southern White Rhinoceroses (Rhinoceri?) without success; and some genetic analyses suggest that perhaps they aren’t two subspecies at all, but two distinct species, which would make the whole project a lot more difficult.

I should hope if the American RINO (Parasitus rectum pseudoconservativum) is ever this endangered, there will be heroic efforts not to save the species, but rather to push the remainder off a cliff. Onto punji sticks. With feces smeared on them. Failing that a good bath in red fuming nitric acid will do.

But I’m not done ranting about RINOs.

The RINOs (if they are capable of any introspection whatsoever) probably wonder why they constantly have to deal with “populist” eruptions like the Trump-led MAGA movement. That would be because the so-called populists stand for absolutely nothing except for going along to get along. That allows the Left to drive the culture and politics.

Given the results of Tuesday’s elections, the Left will now push harder, and the RINOs will now turn even squishier than they were before.

I well remember 1989-1990 in my state when the RINO establishment started preaching the message that a conservative simply couldn’t win in Colorado. Never mind the fact that Reagan had won the state TWICE (in 1984 bringing in a veto-proof state house and senate with him) and GHWB had won after (falsely!) assuring everyone that a vote for him was a vote for Reagan’s third term.

This is how the RINOs function. They push, push, push the line that only a “moderate” can get elected. Stomp them when they pull that shit. Tell everyone in ear shot that that’s exactly what the Left wants you to think, and oh-by-the-way-Mister-RINO if you’re in this party selling the same message as the Left…well, whythefuckexactly are you in this party, you piece of rancid weasel shit?

Election Cheating

Republicans won…in Virginia, and maybe in New Jersey, and in a lot of local races nationwide (including school boards–very critical in the long term).

If we can’t possibly win without an honest system, and we know the system has not been fixed…uh, what’s up? Seems like a bit of a contradiction.

So I will modify my stance somewhat, in the light of new information: Apparently the automated cheating that’s rather subtle could be overcome. And indeed it was overcome in 2020 as well.

That’s when the Left/Establishment went to good old fashioned blatant ballot-box stuffing, putting up cardboard to block the view into election centers and running ballot after ballot through the machines. To say nothing of the six figure dumps of votes entirely for China Joe and Skanky Hoe.

This time, for whatever reason, they didn’t go that far.

Perhaps it’s just so they can claim “See, Republicans can win elections, so we’re not cheating and Trump was just a Loser.” In which case, I’ll go back to my original stance and say that we cannot win until the election process is fixed. But then I’ll go on to add: unless they decide for tactical reasons to let us win a couple.

So for now, I’ll stick with:

Justice Must Be Done.

The prior election must be acknowledged as fraudulent, and steps must be taken to prosecute the fraudsters and restore integrity to the system. (This doesn’t necessarily include deposing Joe and Hoe and putting Trump where he belongs, but it would certainly be a lot easier to fix our broken electoral system with the right people in charge.)

Nothing else matters at this point. Talking about trying again in 2022 or 2024 is pointless otherwise. Which is not to say one must never talk about this, but rather that one must account for this in ones planning; if fixing the fraud in the system is not part of the plan, you have no plan.

This will necessarily be piecemeal, state by state, which is why I am encouraged by those states working to change their laws to alleviate the fraud both via computer and via bogus voters. If enough states do that we might end up with a working majority in Congress and that would be something Trump never really had.

Lawyer Appeasement Section

OK now for the fine print.

This is the WQTH Daily Thread. You know the drill. There’s no Poltical correctness, but civility is a requirement. There are Important Guidelines,  here, with an addendum on 20191110.

We have a new board – called The U Tree – where people can take each other to the woodshed without fear of censorship or moderation.

And remember Wheatie’s Rules:

1. No food fights
2. No running with scissors.
3. If you bring snacks, bring enough for everyone.
4. Zeroth rule of gun safety: Don’t let the government get your guns.
5. Rule one of gun safety: The gun is always loaded.
5a. If you actually want the gun to be loaded, like because you’re checking out a bump in the night, then it’s empty.
6. Rule two of gun safety: Never point the gun at anything you’re not willing to destroy.
7. Rule three: Keep your finger off the trigger until ready to fire.
8. Rule the fourth: Be sure of your target and what is behind it.

(Hmm a few extras seem to have crept in.)

Spot Prices

Last week:

Gold $1785.10
Silver $23.99
Platinum $1028.00
Palladium $2087.00
Rhodium $15,250.00

This week, 3 PM MT on Friday, markets closed for the weekend

Gold $1819.00
Silver $24.25
Platinum $1042.00
Palladium $2117.00
Rhodium $15,500.00

Everything is UP. Gold has busted $1800. Silver has busted $24. I suspect they’re going to continue upward, for now.

The Distance Ladder

A couple of go-backs

A couple of things I failed to mention last time.

Schwarzschild (the name is German for “black shield,” ironically enough) did his theoretical work in 1915, immediately after Einstein published the theory of general relativity. His solution to the Einstein field equations of general relativity was the first one, in fact. Astrophysicists are still careful to distinguish “Schwarzschild black holes” from rotating black holes. Schwarzschild was killed in action on the Eastern Front in World War I.

There probably is no such thing as an actual non-rotating black hole. Such would have to be formed from a non-rotating massive star (or a nebula with absolutely no rotation, in the case of the supermassive black holes). Remember that even the tiniest rotation will be magnified, and magnified a lot, as the object shrinks down from light years (or tens of trillions of kilometers) across, to star-sized (hundreds of thousands of kilometers) to just a few kilometers in radius, just as the figure skater spins much faster when she pulls her arms in.

Black holes are generally safe…as long as you’re far enough away. If the sun were magically to be replaced by an equal-mass black hole, the Earth would continue in its orbit and not be sucked in. It’s only when you get to within about 3 Schwarzschild radii that you can’t have a stable orbit. (And the Schwarzschild radius is the radius at which the escape velocity is equal to the speed of light.) For the sun the Schwarzschild radius is 2,950 meters (not kilometers, meters). Earth could be made into a black hole too–if you could manage to compress it until its radius is 8.87 millimeters.

Measuring Distances

Astronomers can easily measure the direction of a star. This was being done with surprisingly high precision even before the invention of the telescope. As seen from earth, the sky forms a “celestial sphere” and every star’s position on that sphere can be measured and plotted in star charts. The celestial sphere appears to rotate on an axis (really it’s the earth that rotates on that axis, in the opposite direction), so that defines north and south “poles” on the celestial sphere; and halfway between them is the celestial equator. So you can get something like “latitude” on the celestial sphere, only it’s called “declination” or “Dec.” Longitude is trickier because there’s no objective zero point, but can be handled too. The sun, of course, moves along the celestial sphere following the “zodiac” which is a circle tilted at a 23.5 degree angle to the celestial equator (and again, it’s not the sun that’s really moving, it’s the earth orbiting the sun making the sun appear to move). The place where the zodiac crosses the celestial equator, when the sun is moving from the southern celestial hemisphere into the northern celestial hemisphere, is called “the first point of Aries” and is also the zero “longitude” point by convention. When you see a statement like “Spring will start at 4:46 PM on March 21″ that’s really the time the sun will (appear to) cross through the first point of Aries”. But here’s a wrinkle with regard to celestial longitude: It’s measured not in degrees but in hours. 24 hours makes up the full circle, then those are divided into minutes and seconds just like degrees are. And it’s called “Right Ascension” or “R.A.,” not longitude.

If you remember last week I posted a rather colorful plot of the orbits of some stars at the center of the Milky Way around the supermassive black hole there, plotted on a grid. The grid is marked off in seconds of arc (i.e., the kind of second that is 1/3600th of a degree, not the kind of second that is 1/3600th of an hour of right ascension), with respect to the declination and right ascension of that black hole. That is what those scales mean.

In any case it’s easy to measure this sort of thing; one of the two most manifestly obvious things about a star is what direction it’s in. (The other is how bright it is.)

But that alone will not tell us where the star is. In three dimensional space, you need three coordinates. In a Cartesian (square/cubic) grid, you need x, y, and z. In this case, you’re dealing with spherical coordinates, and you still need three of them (that’s why it’s “three dimensional” space): Right ascension, declination, and distance.

And unlike right ascension and declination, distance to a star is a cast-iron bitch to measure accurately.

I’ve told, here and especially elsewhere, the story of how we first determined the distance from Earth to the Sun (and hence all of the other distances within the solar system, since we already knew the ratios of the distances to each other). This was in the 1760s and it required observations of Venus transiting the Sun (i.e., crossing directly between Earth and the Sun so as to appear as a black dot crossing the fact of the sun, rather than crossing north/”above” or south/”below” the sun as it laps us in its orbit). This distance is called an “Astronomical Unit” (AU), and is currently defined to be 149,597,870,700 meters (in other words if we ever measure it in the future and it turns out the actual distance isn’t quite this, we’ll keep this number for the astronomical unit anyway). (And [Oh By The Way] knowing the average distance from the earth to the sun to the nearest 100 meters is, in and of itself, quite a triumph of measurement.)

With extremely painstaking measurements, best done on photographic plates, it became possible to measure distances to some stars once we knew this. It took until the mid 1800s. What happens is, as the earth revolves around the sun, its position changes by roughly 300 million kilometers, and that will cause nearer stars to appear to shift back and forth in relation to farther stars, just like you can shift your head back and forth and, say, a nearby light pole in a parking lot will appear to move back and forth with respect to the mountains in the background. (Folks in Kansas and especially Florida and Louisiana will have to adjust that example a bit.) This is known as parallax.

If you know how far you are moving your head, and can measure how many degrees along the horizon the pole appears to shift, it’s straightforward trigonometry to determine the distance to the light pole.

Even with the earth moving back-and-forth 300 million kilometers, the parallax of even the nearest star is less than one second of arc. (But note, this is quoted, for historical reasons, with respect to half of the earth’s orbital diameter, i.e., its orbital radius, which is to say, versus a 1 AU baseline, not a 2 AU baseline.) An arcsecond is about the width of a quarter at eighteen thousand feet (over three miles).

It’s possible to compute how far away something has to be to have a (half) parallax of one arc second as seen from a body orbiting with a radius of 1AU. Again, straightforward trigonometry. And, to the nearest meter (it has to be rounded because the formula has pi in it), it’s 30,856,775,814,913,673 meters. Or about 31 quadrillion meters or 31 trillion kilometers. This is called a “parsec” (short for “parallax-second”), and it’s roughly equal to 206,000 AU. (If you consider that Neptune’s orbit is roughly 30 AUs in radius, you can see how truly vast this distance is even compared to our solar system, which is measured in billions of miles. And this is closer than the nearest star.)

Astronomers–and I mean people who do astronomy for a living–think in and use parsecs. You’ve heard of light years, I am sure. That’s the distance light travels in a year. A parsec is actually about 3.26 light years, or alternatively, it takes 3.26 years for light to travel one parsec.

Astronomers talking to the public basically have to multiply everything by 3.26 so they can express it in light years. Why work in parsecs, then? Well, when they measure a parallax, they just have to divide it into 1 arc second to get the distance in parsecs. A 0.5 second parallax, means a two parsec distance, and so on.

The first successful parallax-based distance measurement was of the star Vega (visible low in the west shortly after sunset this time of year; it’s part of the Summer Triangle asterism); its parallax is almost exactly 1/8th of an arc second, so its distance was roughly 8 parsecs.

This was conceptually easy, but parallaxes were so small that by 1900 only 60 stars had had their distances measured. The process sped up in the early 20th century, to be sure…but since even with a small telescope hundreds of thousands of stars are visible, we weren’t going to finish off the list any time soon. Plus, of course, the fact that most of these stars are so distant they couldn’t be measured by the instruments of the time–they were in fact used as the backdrop for the nearer stars to move against. (Even today, with satellites doing the work, we really can’t get past about 1600 light years with this method.)

Clearly, if we were going to measure lots of stellar distances, we’d need another method.

But now for a wrenching change of subject.

The Shape of the Universe

William Herschel (1738-1822) is best known as the discoverer of the planet George. At least, that’s what he wanted to name it, after the King of England, George III.

(I’ll pause now and give you all a chance to quit vomiting at the prospect of naming a planet after that particular asshole.)

This name was not accepted by most astronomers, so instead they named it after every asshole: Uranus. And of course, that probably leads to even more bad jokes than naming it “George” would have. Astronomers school themselves to say “YER in us” instead of “your Anus” when they name that planet, but even that sounds too much like “urinous” (full or redolent of urine). Perhaps they should have gone with “OO rahn us,” probably closer to how the Greeks pronounced that name (father of the Titans) in any case. (And no, I didn’t mean to usurp Wheatie’s word of the day, but if you can find a good use for “urinous” with respect to current events–shouldn’t be that challenging–go right on ahead.)

Anyhow, Herschel did a lot of other things, perhaps the most important of which was discovery of infrared light. But for our purposes today, he was also the first to suggest that the stars, if their three-dimensional positions could be plotted, would form a disc with a central bulge, sort of like some renderings of flying saucers; and that the Sun would not be at the center of this shape.

How did he conclude this? If you get away from city lights (and that was easy to do in his day; nothing was as brightly lit back then as it is now), you will see a faintly glowing cloudy band stretching across the night sky. In fact, this cloudy band runs clear around the celestial sphere, including through the part we cannot see from the United States because it’s too far south. It’s most prominent where it runs through the constellation Sagittarius, but it also runs through Cassiopeia (the “W” in the northern sky) and the northern cross (part of Cygnus), in fact it runs along the long member of the cross. (This part of it should be readily visible shortly after dark…again, if you get the heck away from city lights.)

The Milky Way, looking towards Sagittarius. This is a fairly long exposure; you’d never see it look quite like this with your own eyes.
(This was taken in 2007, so I suspect that bright object just below the brightest part of the Milky Way is Jupiter. Twelve years later, 2019, it’d be back at the same location, and that’s not far from where the Great Conjunction happened the year after that.)

The ancient Greeks, of course, had spotted this band, and had named it γαλαξίας κύκλος (galaxias kyklos) or “milky circle” since the pale faint color suggested milk to them; they even had conjured up a myth that it was actual milk from the breast of Hera, queen of the gods. The Romans called it via lactea which translates directly to “Milky Way.”

When Galileo turned his telescope on the Milky Way, it turned out to be hundreds of thousands, if not millions, of stars that were individually too faint to be seen by the unaided eye, but together turned into this “milky way” stretching across the sky.

What Herschel had done was to catalogue thousands of stars and other deep sky objects, like nebulae, and to note that more of them were in the general direction of Sagittarius than any other direction, and of course most were in the plane of the Milky Way than other directions (such as 90 degrees away from it, where almost no stars are). And exactly opposite of Sagittarius, the Milky Way was thinnest.

That’s what we’d see if all the stars were spread out evenly in a fairly flat disc, and we were inside the disk but off center. We’d see the most stars looking through the center, lots of stars looking any other direction through the disc (the least when looking away from the center, because the distance to the edge of the disc is shortest in this direction) and much less looking perpendicularly to the disc.

The Milky Way is not just brighter in the direction of Sagittarius, but broader, which is why Herschel believed (correctly) there was a central bulge in that direction.

Note that Herschel was working before we could measure the distance to stars (and well before spectroscopy and stellar classification), so he was going entirely off their brightness, assuming that dimmer stars were further away. However, he was still essentially right about the shape of this conglomeration of stars.

It was believed that everything–the entire universe–was within this structure. That included not just stars, but also nebulae, in essence either dark, opaque clouds of gas and dust, or in some cases such clouds brightly lit by nearby stars.

One fairly obvious and prominent nebula is in the sword of Orion; it looks a bit fuzzy to the unaided eye (instead of being a crisp point of light like other things “up there”) but in binoculars it is obviously a glowing cloud of gas lit by stars embedded within it.

In fact, this is a place where stars and planetary systems are forming–right now. This is abundantly clear from observations, including from Hubble Space Telescope images.

Other nebulae had distinctly spiral shapes, like, for instance, this one:

A “spiral nebula” cataloged by Charles Messier in 1753 as M-51. It’s in the constellation Canes Venatici, which in turn is near the constellation Bootes (representing his dogs, Bootes was a herdsman).

And this is pretty much where things sat, clear into the early part of the 20th century. The universe was believed to consist of the Milky Way, surrounded by empty space.

But there were proponents of a different idea, that these spiral nebulae were actually separate galaxies. On April 26, 1920, in fact, there was a debate held at the Smithsonian’s Museum of Natural History; today it is known as the “Great Debate.” Harlow Shapley argued the spiral nebulae were on the outskirts of this galaxy, while Heber Curtis argued that they were in fact, distinct galaxies and therefore very far away, outside of this galaxy.

Note that this was just over a century ago. The issue wouldn’t be settled until 1924.

We have only known about other galaxies definitively for less than a century. Think about that.

How could the people who thought that “spiral nebulae” were in fact separate galaxies outside our own actually prove it? Or alternatively, be made to shut up? Well, the most straightforward way to do that would be to show that they were far, far away–or not.

Which brings me back to pointing out that in astronomy, measuring distances is a cast-iron bitch.

Even with today’s satellite technology, we can barely get parallaxes over 1% of the distance across this galaxy; certainly in 1920 using stone knives and bearskins we’d never be able to prove something was outside the galaxy with parallaxes.

A Standard Candle

But we already had a solution to this.

We go to HAH-vuhd, 1908-1912, and yet another woman, Henrietta Swan Leavitt (1868-1921).

I point out the fact that she was, indeed, a “she” because in those days it was very unusual for women to be involved with the “hard” sciences. How, then, did so many of them end up clustered at Harvard?

As it happens the astronomer Edward Charles Pickering (1848-1919) had developed a method of taking the spectra of multiple stars all at once by putting a prism in front of a photographic plate. He had,over decades, assembled a team of women to go through the data for 220,000 stars. This was primarily because they were cheap labor, but also because even back then women were appreciated for work that required attention to detail. [For instance, the US Mint preferred women for work as adjusters, who’d file excess precious metal off of unstruck planchets.] Annie Jump Cannon, whom we’ve met previously, emerged as their natural leader. The group became known as “Pickering’s Computers” (this was well before the invention of the electricity powered computer) and are now known as the Harvard Computers. They didn’t have doctorates (not by any means) but their contributions to astronomy today are well-regarded.

There were so many photographic plates involved–and back then these were sheets of glass coated with emulsion–that Pickering’s research was said to weigh 120 tons.

Cecilia Payne-Gaposhkin (whom I discussed previously; she discovered the stars were mostly made of hydrogen) was not one of the computers; she actually was a graduate student who worked closely with them.

Henrietta Swan Leavitt, on the other hand, was one of the computers and she established the first “standard candle.”

Clear back in September of 1784, Edward Pigott noticed that the star Eta Aquilae was variable; it would regularly dim, then brighten suddenly, then dim again. It would do so with the same period; every pulsation took the same amount of time, known as the period. (We now know that stars like this actually pulsate in size, like a yo-yo dieter only much more rapidly.) Just a few months later a different astronomer noticed the same for Delta Cephei. The periods range from a few days to a few months.[A digression about these names. There are thousands of stars in the sky visible to the naked eye; countless more visible with a telescope. They can’t all be given unique names (though hundreds have been, everything from Betelgeuse [famous] to Zubenelschamali [not so famous]). So in 1603, just before the invention of the telescope, Johann Bayer came up with a system of labeling the brightest star in a constellation as “alpha” (such as Alpha Orionis–Betelgeuse). Beta would go to the second brightest star and so on. This would be followed by the Latin genitive of the constellation name. So Betelgeuse was “Alpha of Orion,” strictly translated. This is called the Bayer designation, and has been extended since then. Continuing to look at Orion, alpha through kappa, the brightest ten stars: Eight of them have “real” names, one (theta) is actually the Orion nebula, and eta is (as far as Wikipoo knows) nameless. The three belt stars are among the named stars, the four stars of the not-quite-a-rectangle also all have names. Returning to Cepheids, Delta Cephei was designated the fourth brightest star in Cepheus by Bayer.]

There turned out to be an entire class of these variable stars and they became known as Cepheid variables in honor of Delta Cephei. Several dozen had been discovered by the end of the 19th century. Today we know that they are typically stars four to twenty times as massive as the sun, and therefore very bright, up to 100,000 times as bright–but this was not apparent before Henrietta Swan Leavitt studied them.

In 1908 Henrietta Swan Leavitt began measuring the apparent brightness and periods of numerous Cepheids in the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds. Apparently there are thousands of Cepheids in these clouds, though they appear quite faint compared to the ones previously discovered.

The SMC and LMC are patches of milkiness that are quite apparent to the naked eye, provided you are far enough south; they are deep in the southern celestial hemisphere, and the further south an object is, the further south you have to be for it to be above the horizon. The Large and Small Magellanic Clouds were noted by Antonio Pigafetta, who was with Ferdinand Magellan on his voyage (yes, that Magellan, famous for being the first to circumnavigate the Earth in the early 1500s). Of course many had noticed them before, anyone from Australian aborigines to Arabic astronomers and some other early European explorers, but for some reason this guy was able to tell the European scientific community about them and have it “stick.”

Leavitt noticed that the Cepheids in the Magellanic Clouds had an interesting correlation: the brighter they appeared, the longer their periods.

It was logical to suppose that Cepheids in one of the clouds are all at about the same distance from us. Which would mean the brighter ones really were intrinsically brighter than their dimmer cousins. And if the brighter ones had the longer periods…well then!

So what we had was a “standard candle” (Leavitt coined the term), in other words something of known intrinsic brightness. If you could measure the period of a Cepheid, and it had a long period, you knew it was the same intrinsic brightness as one with the same period in the Large Magellanic Cloud. If it looked dimmer, then it was actually further away. If it looked brighter, it was closer. So you could tell the (relative) distance of a Cepheid by measuring its period.

Leavitt published in 1912.

All we needed now was to measure the distance to one Cepheid variable by some other means and we’d know the distance to all of them. Eijnar Hertzsprung (as in “Hertzsprung Russell Diagram”, 1873-1967) measured the distance to several Cepheids by parallax in 1913.

We had our standard candle and were off to the races now.

In 1924, Edwin Hubble (after whom the space telescope is named, 1889-1953) working at the Mt. Wilson observatory in southern California, was able to detect very faint Cepheids in many of the “spiral nebulae,” measure their periods, determine that they were well outside the bounds of “the” “one and only” galaxy, and could therefore establish, once and for all, that the spiral nebulae they were in were actually separate galaxies.

The universe had just gotten bigger. A lot bigger. Some of the galaxies Hubble was able to measure were sixty or so million light years away; which is to say six hundred million trillion kilometers away (which is to say six hundred quintillion kilometers). That’s a lot more than the 100,000 light year diameter of this galaxy, which hitherto had been thought to be the entire universe.

A bunch of those galaxies about fifty or sixty million light years away are in the constellation Virgo, and that group is now known as the “Virgo cluster.”

And there were many, many dimmer “spiral nebulae” in which no Cepheids could be detected at all–presumably because those nebulae were so far away the Cepheids in them were too faint to see. So how big, precisely, is this universe of ours? Certainly at least hundreds of millions of light years!

At the other end of the scale, and most famously, there is a “spiral nebula” in Andromeda. You can see it with your own unaided eye, far away from city lights. (I personally find it hard to see; I have to look away from it slightly to see it. But it certainly shows up in binoculars!) It’s now called the Andromeda Galaxy, thanks to Hubble. It’s about 2 million light years away. The LMC and SMC are much closer, they’re now considered satellite smaller galaxies in orbit about our own galaxy. There are a few other very close galaxies, such as M-33; together with the Andromeda and Milky Way galaxies they make up the imaginatively-named “Local Group.” Twenty quadrillion kilometers may not seem terribly “local” to you, but for galaxies, that’s Standing Room Only and get your elbow out of my eye!

That telescope on Mt. Wilson? It was a monster in its day, with a 100 inch mirror. It still exists today; you can see it on tours during the daytime. It is not, however, used by professional astronomers any more as it’s simply not powerful enough. However, for several thousand dollars a night, you can rent the telescope–though as far as I know that opportunity is only extended to astronomy clubs.

But in terms of its historical impact on our view of the universe, it is probably second only to Galileo’s telescopes. Hubble himself is considered a Giant of astronomy; those astronomy clubs can actually use the same telescope he used.

But Hubble was not done in 1924. If anything, what he went on to do after this was even more important.

Redshifts

Vesto Melvin Slipher (1875-1969), had, back in the 1910s, looked at “spiral neblulae” through a spectroscope and had been able to measure their velocity towards or away from us (the “radial” velocity) by noting the Doppler shift of the spectral lines.

Almost all of them were moving away from us, as indicated by a shift towards longer wavelengths (lower frequencies). This is the famous “red shift” because the lines in the visible spectrum were shifted towards red, the longer wavelengths of visible light. Very few were shifted towards violet (which, for some reason is called a blue shift, not a violet shift). This was peculiar; after all a bunch of objects “out there” should have a pretty random assortment of radial velocities…yet almost all of these spirals were moving away from us, and rather rapidly, too.

For example, M-87 in the Virgo Cluster (this is the one with the really big black hole at its center–but Slipher had no idea about that) is moving away from us at 1284 kilometers per second. Which is pretty doggone fast.

Hubble took this data, combined it with his distance measurements, and made a plot.

And got the surprise of his life.

It turns out that the farther away a galaxy is, the faster it is receding, The main exceptions turned out to be within the Local Group; some of those galaxies actually are headed towards us (like Andromeda, which will collide with this galaxy in about five billion years).

M-87 is 16.4 megaparsecs (million parsecs) away from us which puts it at about 53.5 million light years off.

What is it about the Milky Way galaxy that is repelling almost all of the other galaxies?

Nothing, actually. It turns out that a hypothetical observer in any galaxy will see all of the other galaxies rushing away from him, the further away, the faster.

Hubble was able to determine that for every megaparsec of distance, a galaxy is going to be moving 500 kilometers per second. As it turns out, there were significant problems with using Cepheid variables–it turns out there are two distinct classes of them that behave differently. I’ve ignored that fact up til now. But now, this recession rate is known to be 74 km/second…for each megaparsec of distance. This is known as the Hubble parameter, now. And the fact that further galaxies recede faster is now known as Hubble’s Law.

Bang!

But, run the movie backwards! What happens? Since galaxies twice as far away move twice as fast, if you run the movie backwards, all galaxies come together simultaneously at some point. Which means (if you halt the reverse at this point and start looking at it in forward motion) everything was in one place, then there was a big explosion (or something like that) and all of the pieces got blown away from from the other pieces at some point in the distant past, eventually leading to what we see today.

Time for Einstein and Company to step in.

One thing that was instantly apparent to Albert Einstein when he formulated General Relativity was that it could be applied to the universe as a whole. Einstein believed (as most did in 1915) that the universe was essentially static and unchanging on a large scale. What we see now was pretty much what had been there…back forever.

However, both General Relativity and Newtonian gravity said that if the universe consisted of a bunch of stationary objects, they’d simply attract each other and start to move closer to each other, in exactly the same way that a stationary apple a meter above the floor will, without support, fall.

So Einstein, believing that this wasn’t what was happening (he really didn’t have evidence of that; this was before Hubble), put a fudge factor into his equation, a cosmological constant repulsion that counteracted what would otherwise be the natural inclination of the universe to contract.

Hubble’s discovery was an attitude adjuster for Einstein. The universe was not static and unchanging, it had not always existed. It had instead had a beginning, and from that beginning everything rushed apart. Clearly, ever since then, the galaxies had been slowing down due to their mutual attraction, but also, clearly, they hadn’t come to a halt. With the residual motion evident even today, there was no need for the cosmological constant fudge factor in his equations.

Einstein later considered it the biggest mistake of his life and he was probably right because he didn’t vote for Joe Biden.

[I say that, but perhaps a check of the voter rolls for Princeton, NJ is in order.]

In 1922, Alexander Alexandrovich Friedmann (1888-1925) worked with Einstein’s General Relativity equation, and derived a relationship between the average density of the universe (in kilograms per cubic meter, for instance–and by the way this number is very, very small!), its current expansion velocity, and its acceleration; this equation could be used to determine the future state of the universe (or any past state). You could essentially get the Hubble parameter out of it with the right inputs; and the equation can be rearranged to use the Hubble parameter as one of its coefficients.

The equation makes it clear that the Hubble parameter is not a constant, it can change. And indeed it’s expected to start out at a high value when everything was bunched together, then drop as things slow down over time as galaxies attract each other–exactly the way an apple thrown up into the air slows down and stops.

Another part of the equation is an expression for how fast the Hubble parameter is changing with time.

The big unknown, actually, is the average density of the universe. There is a certain value of it, which will cause the universe to expand forever, but as the time goes to infinity the speeds drop to zero…as if everything were currently moving exactly at escape velocity. This is the critical density, and the actual density could conceivably be one billionth (or a centillionth) of that value, or a billion times as much.

Determining the ratio of the actual density to the critical density has occupied a large part of the efforts of cosmologists over the last century. I had originally written a bunch more on that here…but this article has gotten long enough, and I don’t want to get too historically askew. Suffice it to say that early estimates were less than 1, but more than 0.01, meaning that there didn’t appear to be enough matter in the universe to cause its expansion to slow down and have it recollapse. But these numbers are suspiciously close to 1 when you consider the range of conceivable values is literally infinite.

It appeared at the time as though it was one third of the value, which is close enough to 1 (compared to all of the other possible ratios) to make scientists suspect it really is 1 and we’re just not measuring it right.

But this is general relativity we are dealing with here, not Newtonian mechanics, so the Friedman equation is actually an equation about how much space time is warped. That makes it more than just an equation about escape velocity. And so there are some things about it that are distinctly counter-intuitive.

First off, the galaxies that rushed away from the original point location are not moving through space. Instead, space itself is expanding. Originally, space itself was small; as it expanded all the matter in the universe stretched out with it, and eventually coalesced to form galaxies. (If the galaxies started moving in some different direction after the Big Bang, because they were near some giant cluster and are attracted to it, that’s actual motion. (And today we believe the Milky Way is moving towards the Virgo cluster.)

One consequence of space expanding is that the red shifts that we see are actually due, not to a Doppler effect but rather, to the fact that while the photon was travelling from the distant galaxy to our eyes the space stretched, which stretched the photon into a longer wavelength. One rather odd consequence of this is that a photon, once emitted, will lose energy as it travels through intergalactic space because its frequency is dropping.

Second, space-time across the expanse of the universe has a shape. And it turns out that a value of density lower than the critical density would imply that space has negative curvature, and a value that is higher would imply that space has positive curvature.

Now what the heck does that mean? How can space be curved? Well, we already know it can be warped and that’s what gravity actually is. But this deserves some elaboration.

You were taught in geometry class that the sum of the three interior angles of a triangle is always 180 degrees. That’s a fundamental property of flat space.

But really, this is only true if the triangle is drawn on a flat plane.

If you were to travel from the equator directly to the north pole, make a right-angle (90 degree) left turn, then head back to the equator (traveling south), then, on reaching the equator, make another right-angle left turn (now traveling east), you’d end up back where you started, eventually. You could then turn left 90 degrees and be facing north, like you were in the beginning.

You’ve drawn three straight lines, and are back where you started; that’s a triangle. But every interior angle is 90 degrees so the total of the three is 270 degrees.

This “breaks” that 180 degree rule I just reminded you of, but the earth is not flat, it’s (roughly) spherical. It exhibits positive curvature.

Now imagine a surface like a saddle or a Pringles chip, extended to infinity. (The bell of a tuba also works.) Drawing a triangle on that kind of surface gives you a sum of interior angles less than 180 degrees.

If the universe has too high a density, its expansion will eventually cease (at a time short of infinity) and it will collapse back in on itself again. This would render space-time the four dimensional equivalent of a sphere.

If it’s below the critical density, then even at infinity there’s velocity left to the expansion, and space time is shaped somewhat like that saddle.

If it’s exactly at the critical density, then space time is, on the whole, flat.

How can we tell? Try measuring the interior angles of a really big triangle. Preferably one billions of light years in size. (And believe it or not, today’s scientists think they’ve actually done something like that, and they believe the universe to be flat. But I am WAY ahead of the story here.)

If this makes your head hurt, you’re not alone, believe me.

Anyhow, to return to our narrative, a lot of astronomers did not want to accept that the universe didn’t have a definite beginning. Fred Hoyle, famously, refused to accept it, and died in 2002 still refusing to believe it.

It’s not that he didn’t believe that the galaxies were rushing away from each other, but rather, he imagined that as galaxies grew further apart, new matter in the form of hydrogen atoms was being spontaneously created, which would then coalesce to form new galaxies. This would result in the universe of the distant past, or the distant future, looking about the same as it does today, rather than the galaxies being closer together, or further apart, respectively. This is known as the steady state theory, and from what I can see, virtually no scientist accepts it today. Certainly, we’ve never detected any sign of hydrogen spontaneously being created throughout space, as it would have to be if Steady State were true.

Hoyle, trying to characterize the theory he disagreed with so vehemently, came up with the moniker “Big Bang.” He claims he wasn’t trying to be derisive, but many took it as such. The proponents proudly adopted the term to describe that instant–roughly 11 to 13 billion years ago–when everything in the universe was jammed close together.

(It’s not as if people haven’t, at other times, proudly adopted what was supposed to be a derisive label. Right, oh fellow Deplorables?)

The Big Bang theory was simultaneously worked out by Georges Lemaitre (1894-1966), who was not only an astronomer, but also a Catholic priest. He certainly had no problem with the universe having a beginning! In fact Hubble’s Law is often called the Hubble-Lemaitre’s Law.

There was one minor issue though.

Running the tape backwards, the Big Bang appeared to be ten or eleven billion years old. This was based on extrapolating the current expansion rate backwards, and accounting for how the expansion rate was undoubtedly faster in the past. Yet we also had good reason to believe that globular clusters–groupings of thousands to millions of stars that mostly exist above and below the plane of this galaxy–are at least 13 billion years old. Clearly it’s absurd that globular clusters could be older than the universe that they are part of, so this was a nagging issue for quite some time.

The Next Rung Of The Ladder

With Hubble-Lemaitre’s Law established, we had a new way to measure distance. If we couldn’t see Cepheid variables in some galaxy because it was too far away from us, we could instead measure its red shift, turn a mathematical crank, and get a distance out, one likely to be over a hundred million light years.

In fact, when quasars were first discovered, their red shifts were measured and they were instantly some of the most distant objects ever detected. Some were even billions of light years away. But there is a complication here. The farther away a galaxy is, the further back in time we are looking. If we look at M-87, we are seeing it as it was 53 million years ago, because the light has traveled 53 million light years to get to us, and for the light to be getting to us now, it has to have left M-87 53 million years ago.

Similarly for more distant galaxies. As our telescopes became more and more sensitive, we were looking at galaxies further and further into the past. Quasars, it turns out, all happened well in the past, and now we know they are a “young galaxy” thing as the black holes at the galactic centers devour interstellar gas. In older galaxies, that interstellar gas is as gone as last Thanksgiving’s dinner.

But, if the universe has been slowing down its expansion rate, 53 million years ago, or a billion years ago, the Hubble parameter must have been higher. If we compute a distance to a galaxy using a constant Hubble parameter, we’re introducing an error.

Of course this relies on what is ultimately an assumption: That the Hubble parameter is indeed decreasing. It’s an assumption that seems to make sense, because after all everything in the universe is being attracted to everything else. On the other hand, if you’re a galaxy surrounded by other galaxies, their pulls should all cancel out, and that same is true of all of those other galaxies too–they’re all surrounded by other galaxies.

So scientists wanted to check that assumption–and the data gathered would help nail down the average density of the universe a bit better.

So we needed some other way to measure the distance to a galaxy, and compare it to the distance inferred from its red shift. If the first distance was further, that would imply that the Hubble parameter used to be bigger than it is today (as expected) and we could even, if we did this with enough galaxies with different red shifts, be able to plot how much the Hubble parameter was at any given time in the past.

But to do that, we needed another “Standard Candle,” one a lot brighter than Cepheid variables.

And we eventually found one.

But here, I think, is where I need to pause.

I’m going to shift gears next time. But not really. Because as you investigate the very earliest stages of the universe (I am talking about, say, 1 second after the Big Bang) you find yourself needing to know about particle physics.

So switching from talking about the entire universe, to talking about stuff much smaller than atoms, isn’t as jarring as it might seem at first.

Obligatory PSAs and Reminders

China is Lower than Whale Shit

To conclude: My standard Public Service Announcement. We don’t want to forget this!!!

Remember Hong Kong!!!

If anyone ends up in the cell right next to him, tell him I said “hi.”

中国是个混蛋 !!!
Zhōngguò shì gè hùndàn !!!
China is asshoe !!!

China is in the White House

Since Wednesday, January 20 at Noon EST, the bought-and-paid for Joseph Biden has been in the White House. It’s as good as having China in the Oval Office.

Joe Biden is Asshoe

China is in the White House, because Joe Biden is in the White House, and Joe Biden is identically equal to China. China is Asshoe. Therefore, Joe Biden is Asshoe.

But of course the much more important thing to realize:

Joe Biden Didn’t Win

乔*拜登没赢 !!!
Qiáo Bài dēng méi yíng !!!
Joe Biden didn’t win !!!

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Wolf Moon | Threat to Demonocracy
Deplorable Patriot

You should see this being slammed all over social media. Seriously, there is some sort of cult-like hold over the sheep right now.

kalbokalbs

“Cult-like hold over the sheep…”

Propaganda news. Big tech censoring. Lying evil governments. They ARE lying. Their goals ARE EVIL. T. R. U. T. H.

Repeat a LIE enough, like 24/7, for two years, yields sheep in an ignorant stooper..

more than Hold The Line, with REFUSE. ACTIVE pushing back, educating the indoctrinated must be a constant, by each of us. Do what we can.

Aubergine

Social media IS the liberals. That’s the key. Most if not all of the people on social media are SOCIAL LIBERALS.

I used to be one. I considered myself a fiscal conservative/social liberal. There are many like that. I am reformed. Now I am Conservative all the way.

But most on social media are small-c conservatives. They believe in “social justice,” and think that we must “accept” all people as who and what they are.

This twists them all up on things like the freedom to choose not to be vaxxed-up with some untested serum that might “save a life.” Because everyone “matters” they have to “protect their neighbor” by getting a clot-shot. It’s because they “love people.”

Talk to some of them, you’ll see who I mean. They think they are conservative because they like the military, don’t like the giant spending bills, and think we should have energy independence. But ask them if they think trans people should be in therapy instead of surgery. Then you’ll see.

Last edited 1 year ago by Aubergine
Deplorable Patriot

I don’t know that they are ALL social liberals. I know several people who are socially more conservative than me (and that’s saying something) who are on SM a lot.

I’m seeing the slamming, specifically, from people in theater, and other forms of entertainment where conservatives are hard to find, most especially a cousin’s husband who is a professional for one of the BIG stages here. Their circles are very insular, and that’s a big problem, which has been exacerbated by all the lockdowns.

Aubergine

Echo-chambers…

EllieLA

This is exactly the Cabal and their Media lapdog’s M O. If one of the High Profile/ Highly Paid sheep/slaves steps off the plantation, they attack, marginalize, and isolate them 24/7, until they either force them back into submission or convince the rest of the sheep/slaves that following him is just too dangerous.

We must all stand and speak up. They can’t corral and pick us all off, if we stand up all at once. If we do it one at a time, they will continue to pick us off one by one.

Gingersmom2009

I listen to sports talk in the car, 94.1 WIP out of Philly to be specific. Lockstep trashing of Rodgers, all cowards.

I wonder how many players/staff “vaccinated” cases the Packers have had. Somehow no one ever mentions the obvious.

Valerie Curren

Sports Talk radio, at least in Metro Detroit, is pretty much hard-core lefty BS. My hubby cannot stand it, especially since “Covid” came on the scene. Those people have lost their dang minds!

Gingersmom2009

Agreed.

Valerie Curren

Sad because you’d think sports AND patriotism would have a decent overlap. The Let’s Go Brandon chant started from Nascar, I believe 🙂

Gingersmom2009

Brandon Brown

Valerie Curren

? Is that FJB w/ a brown stain, not exactly like aka BHO’s Pop’s poem, iirc–pedophile poetry spit!

Gingersmom2009

No, that’s the Nascar Brandon, the guy around which the whole thing originated.

Valerie Curren

OK, thanks! I’m not really aware of Nascar, though there was some type of Jeff Gordon museum in a town where we used to live 😉

Gingersmom2009

😂

cthulhu

Charlotte has some sort of NASCAR museum, IIRC.

Valerie Curren

The one I’m referencing was in Northern Michigan, but I think it might be closed now. We saw Jeff Gordon’s car(s)? on some trucks in town periodically way back when…

Ironically, our old church, once we’d moved downstate, had an annual church campout not far from Michigan’s International Speedway 🙂

Please

Awesome! The more high-profile people turn to IVM instead of fauxi-type cures, the moire sheep will awaken. … which is exactly why there is going to be some pushback against AR about this. I hope he responds with a sticker on his uniform somewhere that says …

“Let’s Go Brandon”

cthulhu

THERE AIN’T NO JUSTICE!!!

–little fish

Ozzytrumpster
Wolf Moon | Threat to Demonocracy

Click in the upper right corner to get a comment link!

Ozzytrumpster

Is that where the f keys are on my ipad?

Wolf Moon | Threat to Demonocracy

Tap or hold (you’ll have to test) the upper right corner of a comment to get it’s link. Not sure how they implement it.

Ozzytrumpster
scott467

That link worked, Ozzy! 👍

pgroup2
bflyjesusgrl 🍊 😎NUCLEAR MAGA😎

Rinos are so darn cute. ❤ They’re kinda like HugeAzz puppy dogs. I DVR and watch different Zoo shows, the UK Zoo show is a hoot.😄 Rinos are super smart, trainable, they love to be hosed off w/water, and rubbed all over. Not scary or mean like Hippos. Hippos are monsters!! 👾
I vaguely remember something about the Northern Whites and Zoo people trying to collect/create ingredients to assist furthering the population.

cthulhu

Hippos kill more people in Africa than any other animal. Lions, rhinos, cape buffalo, and crocodiles are less deadly.

bflyjesusgrl 🍊 😎NUCLEAR MAGA😎

They BAD MoFos. They do NOT tolerate infringement on their perceived territory. When 2 huge bulls are fighting, WOAH Nellie. Those teeth are massive. I’ve seen one bull gore another huge bull and the huge bull just goes off to the shore and dies. The lions and crocs feed well. Nature. 🤷‍♀️

cthulhu

We used to do elephant seal walks every winter at Año Nuevo. One Ranger put it very clearly — “these bull males can weigh up to four tons and stretch sixteen feet….which is approximately the same length and weight as a 1975 Lincoln Continental limousine.”

When two males fight, they rear themselves up and attack each other’s chest shields — which can cause profuse bleeding and sometimes small pieces of meat will go flying. They will run right over vegetation, pups, females, and slow humans to get at a rival. I’ve seen one come off a four-foot shelf and land on a beach, and it was precisely like a limo doing about 25 mph.

You have the close guidance of a Ranger and the parties are quite small, but as you’re slogging around out there, amongst very large carnivores, one of the many amazing things is their utter indifference to humans. You’re supposed to maintain a large distance from them, and you’re obviously respectful, but they act like they could care less unless you stepped on one.

Of course, there are many other aspects to elephant seal biology and behavior — I’ve spent hours on a bluff overlooking some groups watching “elephant seal chess”. But it’s all about them and each other — humans don’t count at all.

scott467

“When 2 huge bulls are fighting, WOAH Nellie.”

_____________

Speaking of whom, I wonder what Bruce Ohr’s wife is up to these days?

Tonawanda

Hamming it up.

pgroup2

[groan]

Gingersmom2009

Lovely wife.

Valerie Curren

This is who I think of, see 10 secs 🙂

https://youtu.be/wEsG1T3etCU

bflyjesusgrl 🍊 😎NUCLEAR MAGA😎

Hopefully an arrest in her near future. 😎

Cuppa Covfefe

Gore(d) Bull Warming…

bflyjesusgrl 🍊 😎NUCLEAR MAGA😎

I watch Africa shows too. Love to watch the lions, especially ones where they follow specific prides over a series of time. The annual run when the wildebeasts, zebras, and gazelles have to cross the croc infested river is CRAYZEE!!

Ozzytrumpster

A lot of that is faked for the cameras. The herd animals are forced into the water at a place they wouldn’t choose to cross. Makes for better viewer stats

Wolf Moon | Threat to Demonocracy

Typical fake news “ethics”.

Ozzytrumpster

Hell, everybody has to go sometime. This way some of those gazelles etc get celluloid immortality

Wolf Moon | Threat to Demonocracy

That’s a Fauci quote, right? 😉

Ozzytrumpster

Actually pink Floyd

scott467

DSOTM 👍😁

cthulhu

Disney still gets slammed for their lemmings footage.

scott467

That’s not very nice… I wonder how the TV crew would like it, if someone did that to them.

Gail Combs

Well it looks like the CCP & Demon Rats/OSHA are actively DOING it to them…. BUT it is going to take them longer to die.

On the Stew Peter show this summer, Dr. Zelenko  was shown an ad by NYC Rabbis touting the Clot shot and saying they had taken it. He was asked to comment. After thinking a few seconds he said: “They are the walking Dead.”

This is just after
‘Poison death shot’: Dr Zelenko testifies before Israeli Rabbinical court

And before the X22 interview: Dr. Zelenko – We Are Living Through A Global Bio Weapon Attack, People Have The Cure To Fight ItWhere Dr Zelenko does not pull any punches

Nor'easter

comment image

Ozzytrumpster

They also attack boat of considerable size. Like ferry’s, that trespass into their “turf”.
very territorial.
o/t escobars hippos have won a stay of execution.
they have escaped, bred and now own certain sections of the river
They might look like fat farts BUT
they are faster than humans on land- you can’t outrun them
they are faster in the water- you can’t outswim them
so essentially you’ve only got a chance of beating them on the bicycle section of the triathlon

cthulhu

That’s why you practice tree-climbing.

Ozzytrumpster

Ah! So it’s hippos that pushed the selection of opposable thumbs

para59r

Yep, hippos and field mice before we had chairs.

scott467

“They also attack boat of considerable size. Like ferry’s, that trespass into their “turf”.
very territorial.”

______________

So a home-made raft or canoe ride would be exciting… probably canoe for me… sporting chance to row past the danger. 👍

cthulhu

There have been quite a few fatalities in sport kayaks from hippo attack.

Wolf Moon | Threat to Demonocracy

WOW!

scott467

They don’t like high-tech graphite sport kayaks, Hippos are strictly old school.

Gotta go with the old aluminum rental canoe, with wooden oars, or ye shalt not pass! 👍 😁

Last edited 1 year ago by scott467
Cuppa Covfefe

White-knuckle rafting…

Ozzytrumpster

I’ll rephrase. Attack boats up to a considerable size.
canoes are like matchsticks to them.( with a juicy centre)

trumpismine

Rinos are sooo easy to spot 😁 comment image

bflyjesusgrl 🍊 😎NUCLEAR MAGA😎

🤕 🤕 🤕
Liberal Logic : Revised & Updated (2021)
comment image

bflyjesusgrl 🍊 😎NUCLEAR MAGA😎

comment image

kalbokalbs

^^^ LIKE. ^^^

bflyjesusgrl 🍊 😎NUCLEAR MAGA😎

comment image

Cuppa Covfefe

UnAmerican commander and thief…..

You can thank Druggie, erm, Draghi (the Klown on the right) for the zero and sub-zero interest rates the world over…

Last edited 1 year ago by Cuppa Covfefe
cthulhu

Speaking of science, a paper came out last month that found that dogs that cocked their heads sideways while learning, learned new words faster and more accurately than dogs that didn’t. In the paper was the intriguing paragraph:

*>The direction of the head-tilts was individually consistent across the different studies, revealing that the direction of the tilt should be considered as a stable individual trait. This observation is in line with previous findings of paw preference in dogs. For instance, Wells et al. (2018) reported task-specific paw use in dogs where the subjects displayed the same pawedness after 6 months when tested again under the same conditions.<*

Which, in my mind, sat up and begged the question: “is the direction of head-tilt correlated with pawedness?” Since it has become customary (I consider this a good thing) that one of a group of authors be designated the email contact, I asked.

The response was (in part):

*>Anyway, you have a very good question but I don’t have an answer yet.

Pawedness seems to be a bit complex to study in dogs. It has been studied a few times but the results are often hard to interpret.

One of the latest studies I’ve found tried to check whether dogs manifest the same preference in 4 different tasks and actually they used a different paw according to what they needed to do.

I think right now we still don’t have a bulletproof way to identify pawedness in dogs but it’s definitely something that I would be interested in exploring.

And, as you mentioned, I would love to see a correlation between that and the direction of the tilt! Especially for those dogs that did it mostly on one side but also on the other.<*

Wolf Moon | Threat to Demonocracy

Science! It’s done by real people! On the internet! 😃

Wolf Moon | Threat to Demonocracy

Science is huggable and pettable!

comment image

cthulhu

Yeah, I thought of those guys too….do they tilt their head one way to get the word in English, and the other way to learn it in Inuit?

pgroup2

I see what you did there.

Ozzytrumpster

I saw it. But you are already too clever by half

Cuppa Covfefe

You’d have to Eskimogain…

cthulhu

The best I could come up with was “Nominative, Accusative, Dative, and Inuitive, with a matrix showing 16 ways of saying “bark”….so I refrained.

Valerie Curren

Did you study Latin? My HS friend who took that class used to use those terms…well Intuitive 😉

cthulhu

German and Spanish.

Valerie Curren

Thx. I took French for 4 years but we never did those specific categories, that I recall 🙂

Valerie Curren

Yikes! Fortunately I got to test out of certain kinds of English classes, because of my allegedly skilled usage, but Not my ability to name the categories of words! 😉

How many are part of Latin? Would it be similar to the Latin-based languages like French, Italian, AND Spanish?

Valerie Curren

Whew, thanks. Glad I didn’t have to study that crap!

I thought Accusative is what Dems AND Rinos do non-stop to Trump & Patriots! 😉

cthulhu

Formal Latin incorporated virtually every bit of persnickety grammar imaginable, which is how it ended up being used by the Roman Church, science, and high-powered (pronounced “useless”) scholars. All the Romance Languages (Port, Span, Fr, It, Rom) jettisoned massive complex parts of Latin just as soon as they were able. German actually incorporated cases, and kept more of them than the Romance Languages did, while ditching (or never considering) many other of Latin’s quirks.

One thing to remember is that it was “The Roman Empire” — there were people traipsing through Rome from Hadrian’s Wall to Scythia on every given day, and they’d naturally want to buy food and beverages from market stalls — the average spoken Latin on the street at the height of the Empire was likely much like modern Spanish in a variety of accents. Only the Church, the Government, and the Self-Absorbed rigidly followed the formal grammar.

Valerie Curren

Hence it is a “dead” language!

The Roman Church insisting on Latin seems to me (a Protestant) a surefire way to keep God as incomprehensible as possible to the masses (no pun intended). Modern Phariseeism as a way to maintain power AND mystique–tragic & likely Very Far from honoring God or His heart of love for All!

cthulhu

On the other hand, formal Latin is an incredibly precise language, which is why it had so much favor in the scientific community (until it didn’t). Mind you, Aramaic or Hebrew are far less persnickety and precise languages — and those are the original sources. [….which leads you off into a “should your commentary be more precise than the sources so you don’t inadvertently fall into theological error through over-generalizing?” debate]

Furthermore, you can also take lessons from English. You literally cannot “get” English without studying a foreign language. English grammar is like one of those pictures of a bombed-out city from WWII. If you want to know what the stubs of walls and piles of debris mean, you actually have to go to a language where they still function — there is too little left intact in standard English to make any sense. Only then can you walk along and go, “there are signs that people worked here” and “there are signs that people lived here”.

Take the subjunctive mood. In Spanish, it’s reasonably well developed and you can see how it is properly used. In English, just about the only place you find it is “if I were a rich man….” — and you might think that comes from a Russian shtetl.

Valerie Curren

LOL, love your last paragraph AND love Fiddler on the Roof too!!!

Well said, all of the above. Wish I’d taken Latin in addition to French & it would have been helpful in my scientific education AND my medically intense special needs parenting existence!

Oh AND I could better translate some of what my botanist aunt says 😉

English is pretty insane as an international language but surely it’s better than Russian or Chinese! Though perhaps a true international language is Linux 😉

cthulhu

Formal Latin is a well-equipped laboratory in how language works.

That said, it is far from a conversational language.

There is a reason that a full Classical education includes formal Latin and Greek. It’s not meant to communicate, it’s meant to train your brain.

That said, Chinese will strain your brain in all sorts of other ways. For one thing, nobody speaks Chinese — it is exclusively a written language. Its writing is pronounced differently if you are speaking Mandarin or Cantonese (or any other dialect) — so you are reading Chinese but speaking Mandarin.

You may recall my expostulation regarding “one letter, one sound” languages, and how I couldn’t stand French. Chinese is infinitely worse — one sign in Mandarin sounds different from the same sign in Cantonese.

Just to make sure you’re either “in the club” or “outside”, Chinese is a very tonal language — you almost sing it.

[Mini-rant: NPR had some PhD “expert” on who had a horrible case of “up-speak”, where every statement you make goes up in pitch like a question.

If you say, “Consider the question of “do you like dogs.” — you’ll say it flat. If you ask, “Do you like dogs?”, you’ll go up at the end. “Up-speak” is when an overeducated person uses the rising inflection for every statement. I hate that.]

Most Chinese dialects have something like five tones, so they bounce around like ABCEBDA while they are saying things — and stuff like “ee-o” might mean “dinnerplate” if using A-D tones, but might mean “monkey droppings” if E-C tones are used.

If you suspect that my rancor is partially fueled by how poorly I personally do it, you’re suspishing properly.

Linux isn’t a language. It’s a software kernel that is also a model of collaboration that has been extended widely through FOSS (Free and Open-Sourced Software) and forms the basis of an ecosystem that supports a diverse bunch of distros (Distributions — a Linux kernel + development tools + utilities + a curated set of other FOSS software).

Valerie Curren

Thx CT, fascinating as ever. I never know if you or Steve will expound the most fully on practically Any topic. You guys rock!!! 🙂

Valerie Curren

Oh AND you came to mind when I watched some random youtube video about weird things unexplained by science the other day…
comment image

I’m guessing it’s a hoax, but who knows. Hope the image shows 🙂

cthulhu

Sadly, no image….

Valerie Curren

OK, let me try again…
comment image
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http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-vMGWfmANpZs/UnaewPk_T_I/AAAAAAAAzLs/rwKtF7DgQBU/s400/gladeflower+cthulhu+clay+tablet.jpg

Found the last one here, fyi, haven’t read anything but it Might be some fun…

http://thedascrypt.blogspot.com/2013/11/another-cool-cthulhu-blog.html

Valerie Curren

Interesting. Seems there is some sci-fi sub-culture thing going on. There are a number of potentially interesting youtube videos that could be enlightening…but who has the time!

https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=cthulhu

cthulhu

Try Amazon or ebay.

Valerie Curren

I remember that weird light-up eyes one you shared the other day 😉

Valerie Curren

hmmm this is well outside of my wheelhouse, other than recognizing some of the Pirates of the Caribbean movie characters exhibited Cthulhu-like traits. Yet again another arena to investigate when the mood AND time coincide 😉

cthulhu

Brown Palace?

cthulhu

I have a variety of odd cthulhu things around, as you might expect. Everything from plush toys to t-shirts.

Valerie Curren

What prompted your fascination originally?

singingsoul1

My Woodford tilts his head and he is very smart learns quick. He is left handed 🙂
Peri plays ignore and shakes her head if I ask her something that she does not want to do and barks if she wants to do something when I ask. She also learns puzzles qick.

Two different reaction two different personalities in dogs but both very bright. Peri is an introvert quiet and misses nothing specially outdoors. Woodford is an extrovert misses some of the happening around him.
A couple of years I kept telling him to speak nothing then Peri sat up looked and a big woof came from her and laid down again. Was so funny .
She is the boss and he submits to her. If I want him to come and he pops around she nips him not hard just telling him to get going 🙂

Last edited 1 year ago by singingsoul1
Wolf Moon | Threat to Demonocracy

Great science lesson, although – yeah – my head hurts!!!

Wolf Moon | Threat to Demonocracy

But it’s in the sidebar!

Ozzytrumpster
Christo Grozev
@christogrozev
 · 17h
Son of FSB's Director of the Directorate for Protection of Constitutional Order (same unit that chases and poisons Russian dissidents) fell from a window and died at the Russian Embassy in Berlin.
https://bellingcat.com/news/2021/11/05/russian-diplomat-who-died-at-berlin-embassy-is-senior-intelligence-figures-son/…
Show this thread

Ozzytrumpster

Loose ends being tied off?

Wolf Moon | Threat to Demonocracy

Something’s up!

Ozzytrumpster

Felix Sater
@felixsater
·
Nov 5

First the pawns fall then the knight and then the Queen.
Quote Tweet
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Felix Sater
@felixsater
· Nov 5
Coming soon the mic drop. via @NYTimes https://nytimes.com/2021/11/04/us/igor-danchenko-arrested-steele-dossier.html?referringSource=articleShare

scott467

“First the pawns fall then the knight and then the Queen.”

____________

Theirs or ours?

(asking for a friend) 😂

Ozzytrumpster

All roads lead to Hillary

Wolf Moon | Threat to Demonocracy

Remember Ashli!

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Wolf Moon | Threat to Demonocracy

REALPOTUS and REALFLOTUS lookin’ GOOD!!!

From GAB!!!

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Aubergine

Photos like this, more than anything, show me just how much President Trump suffered in the White House.

He looks like a different person now. De-aged twenty years. And we want him to do it again.

Gingersmom2009

All the tension is gone – but he looks a little too thin in the face to me. (Camera adds pounds.)

Wolf Moon | Threat to Demonocracy

I’m OK with whatever he chooses. He could be President – or he could be the media mogul who destroys Fake News and puts President DeSantis in the White House. I will support Trump no matter what!!!

Aubergine

Agreed.

mollypitcher5

Republicans just helped Democrats pass $500 million for Tree equity.

Republicans just helped Democrats get $500 million for “Transportation Resilience and Adaptation Centers of Excellence”

Republicans just helped Democrats pass $250 million for the “congestion relief program”, a climate change program that will impose fees for parking and driving during peak hours

After $70 billion in covid relief, Republicans just helped Democrats give universities another $400 million

Republicans just gave Democrats $1.4 billion for PROTECT grants, another climate change initiative

Republicans just forced states to provide an annual list of “disadvantaged businesses” owned by women and minorities, verified by in person inspections

Republicans just gave Joe Manchin’s wife $1.1 BILLION

Republicans just gave Democrats $75 million for a study on how to enact income-based road usage fees

Republicans just gave the DC Metropolitan Area Transit Authority $750 million.

Republicans just gave $2.1 billion to North Dakota’s carbon dioxide pipelines, a payout for 
@SenKevinCramer
. Lining each other’s pockets.

More more millions more

From @ Oil Field Rando

Somebody tell me why we keep falling for the lies ? Next time, always next time. There is no next time for me. I’m done.

Grandmaintexas

Nothing matters if 2020 isn’t fixed.

mollypitcher5

100% correct ! All of this…the killer vax, CRT, USA without a border, masks, now this…every bit because of the 2020 steal

Wolf Moon | Threat to Demonocracy

They had to steal the WH to get back on their agenda.

Cucking Fommunists.

mollypitcher5

They did it and now…the tsunami is on us.
We should’ve all pulled out of this traitorous party after 2020 but no…….pearl clutching and reasoning gets us this ???

Most of my effort and concern is for the next generation. I can ride this out before it gets to the gulag stage but my grandkids..this is going to be their life.

Wolf Moon | Threat to Demonocracy

Keep pushing. There is no rest – there is only hope.

mollypitcher5

I may be at the last stage, acceptance. Playing by the rules that are no longer enforced seems dumb to me. If there’s some other solution I’d be in favor but this is like torture, slow torture.

singingsoul1

We cannot give up we need to fight.
This country fought abroad but not internally. Most people do not know how to fight when it is in this country.
Until my last breath I will not give up and not give up on hope.
I am working with what we have and we tolerated republican party as was is for too long. There behavior did not affect us and now it does. 13 cowards republican cowards changed history for the worse and sold out the country. Never forget them .

Deplorable Patriot

“This country fought abroad but not internally. Most people do not know how to fight when it is in this country.”

Oh, this country fought internally. The bloodiest war we ever fought, the one between the states, left scars so deep, we’re very much not inclined to repeat the experience.

singingsoul1

Maybe that has been forgotten? Also many immigrants are here and many people only know prosperity and peace in the country. I experienced the sixties here and yes black people fought for their rights.
I am speaking of communism many people do not know it and it is bad when it comes from your own.

Gail Combs

Singing,
Unlike the Tea Party, we have LEADERSHIP and a PLAN…. And the LEFT IS FLIPPING OUT (and so are the Rhinos.)

WHO WE ARE
WHAT IS THE PRECINCT STRATEGY?

….The office of precinct committeeman (“PC”) has been has been called “the most powerful office in the world” because the PC is the closest structured political officeholder to the registered voter. A registered voter has no vote in internal Party policy; a precinct committeeman does. A PC elects district, county and state party officers, delegates to the Presidential convention and RNC members. PCs sent to the Pres. Convention vote on what policies the party platform will be advocated in the next two years. Through a monthly meeting, PCs interact with their elected Party officials to influence legislation.,….

Help Change the Republican Party

Fewer than one in one hundred members of a political party can be voting members. Parties cannot exist without the influence and power of Precinct Committee Members. Become a patriot and get into party politics by becoming a Republican Party Precinct Committeeman!….

SMALL NUMBERS, BIG CHANGE

THE POWER OF THREE-TENTHS OF ONE PERCENT OF SEVENTY-FOUR MILLION

In a nutshell, this is what every conservative — including you, dear reader — needs to do ASAP — if our goal is to have our state legislators pass election reform laws requiring all counties to stop using any kind of imaging machines for counting votes and, instead, return us to the “gold standard” of counting votes: hand-counting at the polling locations before the paper ballots are allowed to leave the premises and making voting by mail the exception and not the rule. The first step in taking back our government, by electing better, people, is by taking back the Republican Party from those running it now. And that means YOU becoming a precinct committeeman for your voting precinct. (Precinct committeeman is called different things in different states (precinct chair, precinct delegate, precinct committee officer, member, etc.; the bottom line is that you want to become a voting member of your local or county committee, and it is not difficult to do so.)….

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Last edited 1 year ago by Gail Combs
Valerie Curren

Thanks for this info (again). I shared your link & image on Gab here:

https://gab.com/ValerieCurren/posts/107233998771119741

mollypitcher5

Another thing that seems to happen is that the Dem machine is clever. I think a lot of the old uniparty GOP are garden variety sellouts but it feels like younger turncoats are plants all along. Any trust I had is gone.

Deplorable Patriot

The Dem machine isn’t so much clever as it is ruthless and relentless. They’re using the same bag of tricks they have for almost two centuries.

Charlie

The Mafia never died it just changed mob bosses.

TradeBait2

Spot on, DP.

In the 60’s and 70’s it was bussing to multiple election precincts in multiple states, $5/$10 bills for each vote, free bottles of whiskey, plus local election officials with cash in their pockets. It has evolved with computers and internet.

Basics. If all that is needed to vote is a tabulation of legal votes for election integrity – why is there connectivity that includes direct pipelines to fake news outlets while using algorithms? We all know if we think about it. Some people don’t care because their people are winning. Others don’t care how any of goes as long as they get theirs.

The GOP is in on it, which is why they never really fight for election integrity since they are covered by the same dirty tricks in their areas.

Example – Tennessee where I live. The home where the RINO’s come to roam for many years – until PDT began changing things. We use Dominion. Yet, the GOP dominates, only 2 Dem reps in Memphis/Nashville and the rest including Senate are GOP. They are in on it. Fortunately at the state legislature level we are strongly conservative with big majorities in both houses.

The answer is there. Local election integrity with changes in methodology that work their way up to the governor’s office with majorities that can override any veto. One community and state at a time.

kalbokalbs

Dominion IS equal opportunity. Elects TransRepublicans alongside d-Rats.

Brave and Free

I agree, some of the R’s who’ve been elected recently are sure showing that they’ve been compromised already, sadly.
IMO some of the more vocal ones are possibly playing along too.
Yeah trust is surely something that I don’t have either with many of them.

singingsoul1

That is how communists work and yes we are not communists of fascists therefore we do not fight like they do.
Always remember what we are dealing with. They have no soul no faith just there ideology and that is their god.

Please

“We” …who’s ‘we’, the repub pols? …they don’t fall for anything. They are all on the same side, D’s and R’s and I’s … all Swamp

When this kind of $h!t happens, it is because ‘we’ were paid handsomely, while the real ‘we’, you and me, get stuck with the bill!

Let’s Go Brandon!

Last edited 1 year ago by Please
mollypitcher5

Money aside, it’s the policies that are attached. More control through mileage monitoring, making driving unaffordable, forcing gas appliances to be replaced…water..just wait until they get to that one…in every area of life these build back better reset measures are going to be bad for freedom.

singingsoul1

People have to vote better and know the people who are voted in. 13 republicans voted for the bill 6 democrats voted against.
Lets make the 13 republicans famous and vote them out. We put these clown in and years ago we knew who they were and never voted them out. Accountability needs to be priority not what they look like how well they talk. So many people are taken in by looks instead substance.

Ozzytrumpster

Hope I’m not tracking in dirt

Wolf Moon | Threat to Demonocracy

It’s dirt, but I view it as keeping track of the enemy’s best spy in our camp.

Deplorable Patriot

No, you are not tracking in dirt, but the concept that Comey is a white hat playing a black hat is a hard sell on this forum. Rosenstein, and Mueller may well have been given “get out of jail free” cards for playing along, but that all has not been exposed yet.

ForGodandCountry

Yeah, that’s dirt. Until PROVEN otherwise.

Deplorable Patriot

Like I said, it’s a hard sell. Dawson is not the only one out there saying such things. At this point, it’s all still on the table.

Ozzytrumpster

Wolf Moon | Threat to Demonocracy

My perfect proof that Dawson is a deep state shill, protecting the anti-Trump FIB.

Sundance warned about this defense of the Deep State – that they would sacrifice outsiders to save the infestation inside government.

Gail Combs

Dawson is STILL on Twatter. QED

Gail Combs

 “…Dawson is a deep state shill, protecting the anti-Trump FIB….”

And he thinks we are stupid and have VERY SHORT MEMORIES. Remember Kevin Clinesmith, the FBI attorney who CHANGED the memo from the CIA and hid Carter Page CIA informant role.

Ex-FBI lawyer avoids prison after admitting he doctored email in investigation of Trump’s 2016 campaign
This is the SOB that cost American tax payers BILLIONS and tied up the Trump Admin for YEARS!!!

He needed to get the SAME TREATMENT and ‘conditions’ that the Jan 6th patriots are!

The former FBI lawyer who admitted to doctoring an email that other officials relied upon to justify secret surveillance of a former Trump campaign adviser was sentenced Friday to 12 months of probation, with no time behind bars.

Prosecutors had asked that Kevin Clinesmith, 38, spend several months in prison for his crime, while Clinesmith’s attorneys said probation would be more appropriate. Clinesmith pleaded guilty last summer to altering an email that one of his colleagues used in preparing an application to surreptitiously monitor former Trump campaign adviser Carter Page during the bureau’s 2016 investigation of Russia’s election interference.

U.S. District Judge James E. Boasberg said that Clinesmith’s conduct had undermined the integrity of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court, which approved the FBI’s flawed applications to surveil Page. “Courts all over the country rely on representations from the government, and expect them to be correct,” Boasberg said….

Last edited 1 year ago by Gail Combs
Please

10000X this ^^^

ForGodandCountry

THIS

All day everyday and twice on Sundays.

Wolf Moon | Threat to Demonocracy

A fantastic video with Mike Adams and Dr. Lee Merritt, in which she describes the concept of disseminating contraceptive vaccines. I think she’s on the money here.

Link for sharing:

https(colon)//www.bitchute(dot)com/video/zpD5WqpoqfXx/

Video:

Additional links:

https://www.brighteon.com/a39081f7-59cd-415a-8233-f4a24b655b54

https://conservativeplaylist.com/2021/11/05/secret-military-experiments-and-our-health/

Wolf Moon | Threat to Demonocracy

Sundance sees that the elite is now at a brick wall.

IMO, we can sense the plot. They can kill off the oldsters and shorten the lives of the middle-aged, but sterilizing our kids – no thanks. It’s a COLD PLOT.

Moonbat Milano Asks Audience if They Will Vaccinate Their 5 to 11-Year-Old Children, More Than 90 Percent Say NO

November 5, 2021 | Sundance | 30 Comments

Last edited 1 year ago by Wolf Moon | Threat to Demonocracy
scott467

“They can kill off the oldsters and shorten the lives of the middle-aged,”

____________

Except me…  🤣 😂 🤣

Aubergine

And me. I plan to live to be old. Fuck them.

Deplorable Patriot

They can kill off the oldsters and shorten the lives of the middle-aged

And not have to pay out all that social security to the front end of the baby boom.

I HATE thinking like this, but they’re retiring in droves right now.

Deplorable Patriot

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BillBeakman

Dare say this is not the response Milano was expecting. What shocks me is that she is tacitly encouraging her peeps to think twice about the jab.

kalbokalbs

Thankfully parents WILL protect the children.

Wonder what the percentage of parents NOT injecting their 12-17 yo children. Guessing similar, 90%.

Last edited 1 year ago by kalbokalbs
Gail Combs

IF this is a SELF-SPREADING bio-weapon Clot-Shot then all it takes is to vaccinate a few kids (or the teacher) in EACH CLASS. the kids will then spread it amongst themselves.

singingsoul1

These people need to hang seriously they are sick to the bone of their being. They are vile criminals.

Gail Combs

I keep thinking of Dante’s Ninth Circle and how it needs a whole lot more inhabitants.

Grandmaintexas

THIS.

Gail Combs

~11:30 they discuss the possibility that Covid-19 is NOT a typical virus. They mention that it was hitting certain cities and it was the PCR test that was giving the ILLUSION of a pandemic.

REMEMBER THE CURIOUS CASE OF NO DEATHS IN THE HOMELESS POPULATION!!!

Also:
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Dora

MTG: Jan. 6 Political Prisoners Denied Haircuts and Communion if They Will Not Take Vaccine — Find Pubic Hair in Their Chili (VIDEO)
.

https://www.thegatewaypundit.com/2021/11/mtg-jan-6-political-prisoners-denied-haircuts-communion-will-not-take-vaccine-find-pubic-hair-chili-video/

Dora

Gail Combs

SUNSHINE ==> VITAMIN D in Humans

UV LIGHT KILLS VIRUSES!

Web Med:

….As the researchers explained, broad-spectrum UVC light kills viruses and bacteria, and it is currently used to decontaminate surgical equipment. But this type of light can cause skin cancer and cataracts, so it’s not used in public spaces.

However, Brenner and his colleagues wondered if a much narrower spectrum of ultraviolet light, far-UVC, might be a safer option.

In prior studies, they found that far-UVC light killed methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) bacteria — a common and dangerous “superbug” — without harming human or mouse skin.

In this new study, they found that far-UVC light also killed airborne H1N1 virus, a common strain of flu virus….

https://www.webmd.com/cold-and-flu/news/20180212/can-uv-light-be-used-to-kill-airborne-flu-virus-

Cuppa Covfefe

Remember at the beginning of the COVIDIOCY madness, there was talk of using far-UVC light transmitted into the lungs via ultra-thin fiber-optics… seems that was buried rather quickly, like that Indian paper that was swiftly withdrawn…

There seemed to be a lot of good stuff early on that’s all but forgotten now (but I’ll bet you have copies 😎 )…..

Gail Combs

Who MEEeee? 🤓

Please

RealPOTUS commented on using UV light as well as disinfectants and msm twisted that to drinking bleach. That is what killed it in the minds of the Sheep.

Old – Cable News Network = CNN
New – Cable Opinion Network = CON

Didn’t Maddow get sued and her defense was that she spoke opinions and not facts or news, so no one can say she libeled?

Because Let’s Go Brandon

Grandmaintexas

They have cures.

They have withheld them from us.

Big Pharma is the nexus of world control. Everything meets there…nazis, globalists, communists, money, control, depopulation, and so on.

Dora
trumpismine

Mitch McConnell and Kevin McCarthy must be remove from leadership or nothing will ever be accomplished. Either they are both controlled opposition or incompetent and incapable of leading their respective caucus. The only good thing about this infrastructure bill is it clearly has shown us who many of the traitors in our party are, REMEMBER that next year. No House GOP representative that voted for this madness should keep their seat come next year’s primaries, EVERY last one of them need to go otherwise winning elections will be meaningless with RINO’s like this representing us. We must root these people out of the party once and for all and that includes every senator that voted for this in the Senate.

Gail Combs

AND EVERY CONGRESS CRITTER!

I have two treasonous transvestite DemonRats in NC Burr (who is retiring) and Tillis.

singingsoul1

Amen

Valerie Curren

Hey TIM, I Finally got my husband to reply to your comment here:

https://specialconnections.wordpress.com/2017/06/19/fathers-day-wanderings/

Hope you get a chance to see it and perhaps act on his suggestion. Blessings!

RAC

Speaking of compressing the earth down to the size that would make it a black hole reminded me of an analogy I once read.
I’ve no idea if it is actually true, but it said that if the earth was reduced to the size of a billiard ball it would be smoother than a billiard ball.
In the universe as a whole that kind of puts us little humans in our place.

Cuppa Covfefe

Let the PUNishment fit the crime 🙂

The billiard sharp who any one catches,
His doom’s extremely hard —
He’s made to dwell —
In a dungeon cell
On a spot that’s always barred.
And there he plays extravagant matches
In fitless finger-stalls
On a cloth untrue
With a twisted cue
And elliptical billiard balls!

cthulhu

https://wpapool.com/equipment-specifications/#Balls-and-Ball-Rack

“All balls must be composed of cast phenolic resin plastic and measure 2 ¼ (+.005) inches [5.715 cm (+ .127 mm)] in diameter and weigh 5 ½ to 6 oz [156 to 170 gms].”

There is no specification of sphereness, but it’s hard for my brain to come up with a thing with constant diameters that isn’t spherical.

One thing that I do find interesting, however, is that the balls must be cast, not milled or turned.

Gail Combs

“…That’s when the Left/Establishment went to good old fashioned blatant ballot-box stuffing, putting up cardboard to block the view into election centers and running ballot after ballot through the machines. To say nothing of the six figure dumps of votes entirely for China Joe and Skanky Hoe.

This time, for whatever reason, they didn’t go that far….”

John Fredricks and Steve Bannon worked VERY HARD to STOP the STEAL:

John Fredericks explains the MASSIVE election integrity effort actively protecting voters on election night in Virginia. (1 minute 25 secs)

https://rumble.com/voopug-john-fredericks-glenn-youngkin-won-because-of-you.html

They even brought in the Big Gun Election Thief in Chief, Perkins Coie attorney Marc Elias
From Right Wing Watch, Commie Central

…..Fredericks, who hosts the right-wing Virginia talk show “The John Fredericks Radio Show,” has been traveling the state as part of a bus tour in support of Youngkin, a former business executive who has courted extremists in his bid for governor. Among those supporting his candidacy are the hard-right state Sen. Amanda Chase, former President Donald Trump, and Bannon, all of whom peddled the Big Lie that the election was stolen. In mid-October, Bannon hosted an event organized by Fredericks in support of Youngkin …

“Look, the only way that Youngkin and the Republicans win is by getting Trump voters out now,” Fredericks said. “And they need a huge game day vote. I mean, you saw they got outmaneuvered with the lawyers, the Fairfax ballots that, you know, coming—and being mailed out without the last four digits of Social Security numbers. J. Christian Adams filed a suit Friday, the judge dismisses it. Guess what, Steve? [It] didn’t have standing. These cases are never heard on the merits. So that gets dismissed. Now the McAuliffe campaign [is] desperate. They hire Marc Elias, his firm. He’s there, he’s now claiming that there’s 300,000 mail-out ballots that haven’t been mailed out, are just stuck in a post office. He wants to extend taking votes in for three weeks or something.”

[Commie SpokesThing:] The lawsuit filed by Marc Elias’ firm against USPS states that “more than 300,000 Virginians [are] likely to attempt to cast their votes by mail” and that “Thousands of absentee ballots”—not the 300,000 Fredericks claimed—“currently sit in at postal facilities throughout the Commonwealth, unprocessed for weeks on end.” The lawsuit does not call for extending voting. [You are correct, instead it calls for the Postal Workers to CREATE ballots AS NEEDED.]

“This is outrageous,” Fredericks continued. “I mean, this is basically, ‘We’re going to extend the mail-in vote until we have enough for McAuliffe to win.’ What does that sound like?” …