Another week, another deluge of BS from the White House and from the Controlled Opposition.
The Audit continues.
The collapse of the Covidschina continues.
No doubt much will be said about those today. (And I have missed a lot this past week.)
Justice Must Be Done.
The prior election must be acknowledged as fraudulent, and steps must be taken to prosecute the fraudsters and restore integrity to the system.
Nothing else matters at this point. Talking about trying again in 2022 or 2024 is hopeless otherwise. Which is not to say one must never talk about this, but rather that one must account for this in ones planning; if fixing the fraud is not part of the plan, you have no plan.
Lawyer Appeasement Section
OK now for the fine print.
This is the WQTH Daily Thread. You know the drill. There’s no Poltical correctness, but civility is a requirement. There are Important Guidelines, here, with an addendum on 20191110.
We have a new board – called The U Tree – where people can take each other to the woodshed without fear of censorship or moderation.
And remember Wheatie’s Rules:
1. No food fights
2. No running with scissors.
3. If you bring snacks, bring enough for everyone.
4. Zeroth rule of gun safety: Don’t let the government get your guns.
5. Rule one of gun safety: The gun is always loaded.
5a. If you actually want the gun to be loaded, like because you’re checking out a bump in the night, then it’s empty.
6. Rule two of gun safety: Never point the gun at anything you’re not willing to destroy.
7. Rule three: Keep your finger off the trigger until ready to fire.
8. Rule the fourth: Be sure of your target and what is behind it.
(Hmm a few extras seem to have crept in.)
This week, 3 PM MT on Friday, markets closed for the weekend
The metals took a major thumping this last week! Gold was at 1860 on the 15th and has fallen a hundred bucks since then.
(Part VIII of a Long Series)
The general outline of this story is to start off by putting you “in touch” with the state of physics at the beginning of 1895. Physicists were feeling pretty confident that they understood most everything. Sure there were a few loose ends, but they were just loose ends.
This week marks the end of that positioning. Next week we move into 1895.
1895 marks the year when people began tugging at the loose ends and things unraveled a bit. In the next three years, three major discoveries made it plain there was still a lot to learn at the fundamental level.
Up until now, I have been explaining what the scientific consensus was in 1895. So much of what I have to say is out of date, and I know it…but going past it would be a spoiler. So I’d appreciate not being “corrected” in the comments when I say things like “mass is conserved.” I know that that isn’t considered true any more, but the point is in 1895 we didn’t know that. I will get there in due time. (On the other hand, if I do misrepresent the state of understanding as it was in 1895, I do want to know it.)
Also, to avoid getting bogged down in Spockian numbers specified to nine decimal places, I’m going to round a lot of things off. I used 9.8 kg m/s2 last time for a number that’s actually closer to 9.80665, for instance, similarly for the number 32.
Light is our primary means of sensing the world around us (closely followed by sound, which does take top marks when talking about interacting with people specifically).
So it’s pretty important, and of course we have worked to understand it basically since…forever. Thus it might be surprising to find it was still largely an enigma as of 1895.
As is so often case, the story starts with the philosophers of ancient Greece, who engaged in all sorts of speculation, perhaps the most interesting of which is that we saw by having rays go from our eyes to the object.
Lens makers were able to gain some understanding of optics and construct the first eyeglasses about 1300 and the first telescope in the very early 1600s. (The first patent was by Hans Lippershey in the Netherlands in 1608.) These were used to observe ships coming into port, but word got to Galileo Galilei in Italy. He constructed a much-improved version, turned it skyward, and our view of the universe hasn’t been the same since. (His telescopes still exist; they are in a museum in Florence, Italy.) I’ve told parts of that story in prior posts.
Newton Splits Sunlight
But the first step in our story today was actually taken by Sir Isaac Newton, in 1666. He famously used a prism to break up a beam of white sunlight into light of many colors, in a band called a spectrum, but he also was able to use a lens and another prism to reassemble the light back into a white beam. He was also able to show that, having isolated one color nothing could change that color, not shining it on other colored objects, or the same colored object. It could be blocked or absorbed, but the color never changed to another color.
Based on this he reasoned that (say) a green object looked green because it reflected green light and absorbed the other colors.
Thus white light turned out to simply be a mixture of colors of all sorts of different bright hues.
Noting that light split into colors going through a prism, he realized that light bends going from one medium (air) to another (glass) at an angle, and that the different colors bend at slightly different angles. Going through a pane of glass the two transitions (air to glass, glass to air) cancel each other out, but with a prism the surfaces are not parallel, so the different bending angles are compounded rather than cancelling.
Newton came to the conclusion that light was made of particles (which he called “corpuscles”).
Telescopes (a digression)
A lens in a telescope also has non-parallel surfaces, so astronomers using telescopes with lenses (“refractors”) will see “chromatic aberration” where objects seen in the telescope will have rainbow fringing around them. Newton invented a different type of telescope, one that uses a parabolic mirror to gather light, avoiding a large, expensive lens there; the eyepiece is still a lens. This (“reflector”) is the dominant type of telescope today (there are many variations. That is because a lens is much more expensive than a mirror of the same size and also because a large lens will sag under its own weight, whereas a mirror can be supported from behind.
The practical limit for a refractor was reached in the late 1900s, with the Yerkes Observatory’s 40 inch diameter telescope near Chicago. However, it was possible (with some epic difficulty) to build one-piece mirrors 200 inches across (Palomar Observatory in southern California) and even larger telescopes with multiple mirrors kept in close alignment (or even shifting for adaptive optics).
The Palomar Observatory was conceived in the 1930s, and finally came on line in 1955. It is without a doubt the premier example of pre-computer precision tech on a massive scale. It weighs two hundred tons yet is finely balanced enough to be turned with a motor that could drive a washing machine. The weight of a sandwich on the right part of the mount will cause it to turn, slowly, but turn nonetheless–that’s how friction-free it is. And it is still doing work. It still stands beside Hubble, and the big multiple mirror scopes on the Big Island of Hawaii. You can take tours in the daytime, but at night it might just be imaging planets around other stars, a feat thought impossible back in the 1990s. And this was 1930s technology. But then on the other hand, it was impossible to talk about Palomar in the 1970s without some dickhead bringing up the fact that the Soviet Union was building a 236 inch telescope. It was blatantly obvious they were doing this just to beat us out. Well, guess what; it turned out to be a piece of shit, so the joke was on them. (Please stand and yell, “‘Murica!!!” now.)
Where was I?
OK, so let’s take a look at Newton’s spectrum. To our eyes, it’s a long color gradient, running from deep red through red, orange, yellow, green, turquoise, blue, and violet, eventually getting to a deep violet.
If you’ve seen people make that statement before you might notice it’s a bit off from your recollection. The colors quoted are usually “red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet,” and there’s even a cute “Roy G. Biv” mnemonic to help people remember the order. (I never needed it, I have no trouble visualizing red shading to orange to yellow…etc.) A lot of people have opined that “indigo,” a bluish-purple, hardly seems to be worth considering to be its own color (in particular, Isaac Asimov is quoted to that effect on Wikipedia). But that’s a modern confusion. Newton was the first to list the colors, and to him “blue” meant the color of the sky, what we call today a light blue, and “indigo” meant a dark blue, like seen on the Flag of the United States. There is even a natural dark blue dye named indigo (I don’t know if the color was named after the dye or vice versa). So indigo wasn’t “bluish purple” but rather “blue” in today’s parlance. And therefore I chose to use “turquoise” where Newton was referencing (sky) blue and “blue” where he said “indigo,” more in line with present day usage.
And indeed when you look at Newton’s spectrum, or a rainbow, there are distinct light blue and dark blue bands; today we’d probably term that light blue color “cyan.” They really are distinct colors even if our language doesn’t acknowledge it. (Other languages do, Russian for instance.)
I mentioned rainbows in passing, and as it turns out rainbows have exactly the same cause. Sunlight enters a small water droplet (approximately spherical) in the atmosphere, and gets refracted. It strikes the far side of the droplet, and some goes on out, but some gets reflected, and leaves the front side of the droplet, getting refracted again, constructively. Down on the ground, one tiny part of the spectrum reaches your eye; perhaps you see a certain yellow-orange color from that droplet.
“But I see the whole spectrum,” you respond. True. That’s because you are also seeing light refracted through other droplets, and you just happen to be standing where some other droplet is sending red. Or blue. Or purple. Since all of the red rays coming out of all the droplets are parallel (and likewise for all the other colors) you see a nice orderly rainbow.
But you will only see it with the sun behind you; the droplets are sending light back very roughly the way it came. Therefore at noon the rainbow would be at your feet (and there’s usually not enough water droplets between your eyes and the ground for rainbows to happen, not at high noon there isn’t), so that is why rainbows always seem to happen early in the morning and late in the afternoon. And of course they follow rain showers because rain leaves innumerable microscopic water droplets in the atmosphere.
Herschel and Infrared
The next notable discovery was in 1800, by William Herschel, also of fame for discovering Uranus in 1781 (and trying to name it after King George III…yecchh). He conceived the notion that perhaps the different colors of light carried differing amounts of heat, so he put thermometers in several different locations in a solar spectrum. Like any good scientist, he set up another thermometer outside the spectrum as a control. He didn’t expect that to budge, except perhaps in response to the room itself getting warmer or colder.
He happened to set the control thermometer next to the “red” thermometer, and that was a very happy thing.
When he came back to the test area to record results, the highest temperature was on the “control” thermometer. Not one of the ones that actually had sunlight shining on it! The next highest was the red thermometer, then less and less so towards the purple end of the spectrum.
Eventually the truth became clear. There was non-visible “stuff” off the red side of the spectrum that was associated with heat, and Herschel named it “heat rays.” It ultimately became known as infrared (below red). In today’s parlance, we consider it another kind of light, and distinguish it from “visible” light (Newton’s spectrum). It’s just as “real” as visible light, and we try not to be parochial about the light we can see versus the light we cannot see.
Ritter and Ultraviolet
The very next year, Johann Wilhelm Ritter placed silver chloride soaked paper along the spectrum. Silver chloride will darken when exposed to light (the sort of phenomenon that ultimately led to photography). Presumably he was checking to see which color of light would darken it the most, and the answer turned out to be the hitherto-unknown invisible light on the far side of violet. He named these rays “deoxydizing rays” but today we call them ultraviolet.
We now know that slightly over 50 percent of the energy we get from the sun is in the form of infrared, and ten percent in the form of ultraviolet.
Ultraviolet was discovered to kill bacteria in 1878.
The Speed of Light
The first meaningful attempt to measure the speed of light was by Galileo, but he failed to detect any time delay at all; as far as he could tell light was instantaneous.
Rømer later measured light as taking 22 minutes to cross the diameter of the earth’s orbit. We didn’t know what that diameter actually was back then, but now that we do, Rømer’s measurement works out to 227,000,000 m/s.
In 1849, Fizeau set up a rotating cog wheel. He shone light through one gap, towards a mirror, and himself looked through a gap at the mirror. He could alter the speed of rotation, and thus know how fast the wheel had to rotate to let him see the light in the mirror. At the wrong rotation speed the light would be blocked by the cog, either coming or going. So he could calculate the speed of light, and got 313,000,000 m/s.
In 1862 Foucault (as in pendulum, not as in post modern bullshit) used rotating mirrors to get a speed of 298,000,000 m/s, close to today’s value.
However, it also became apparent that light moved at different speeds in different materials. It was fastest in vacuum. (In fact, these speed differences are what cause it to bend when it crosses from one material to another.)
People were arguing over whether light was made up of particles, or whether it was a wave, until the early 1800s, when Young and Euler showed beyond any reasonable doubt that it was a wave.
And now I’ve got to explain some stuff about waves. Let’s take waves on the surface of a pond as an example. Take a snapshot of these waves, and there will be two obvious things you can measure to describe the waves. First, the distance from crest to crest (or trough to trough—they are the same). This is called the wavelength, and is usually symbolized by λ, Greek letter lamba (representing the “L” sound). Logically enough, it’s measured in meters.
The second is the amplitude, which is the height of the waves. However, there’s a small nuance here: It’s half the trough-to-peak height, because it’s measured from where the water level would be if it were calm, to either the peak or trough. (There are rare exceptions where something different is done; this is by far the most common, followed by something called RMS [“root mean square”] which is a sort of average deviation from “flat” and is used in electrical engineering to measure, for instance, the voltage delivered to your house.) Amplitude is measured in whatever the field is measured (volts for electrical fields, meters for water waves, etc.)
The higher the amplitude, the greater the energy in the wave, generally energy goes as the square of the amplitude–twice the amplitude, four times the energy.
OK, unfreeze the action. Take a movie. Go wading out into the water, and count how many waves pass you in a second. (It’s probably less than 1 if you’re wading in water, but roll with me here.) The number of peaks (or troughs) that pass you in a second is the frequency. It’s measured in per second, 1/s, also known as hertz, but we haven’t met him yet. We will. When talking about light, the frequency is represented by ν, which looks like a v but is actually the Greek letter nu (representing the “N” sound).
[Side note: The Greek letter upsilon (which has had a bunch of different values as time has gone on, but the consensus is in ancient times it was much like German ü. Today it’s like the i in machine) looks like this: υ and they look an awful lot alike in some fonts, which takes getting used to when trying to learn Greek. Mistaking a vowel for a consonant or vice versa when trying to sound out an unfamiliar word is confusing!]
If the waves are passing by at (say) ten meters a second, and you’re measuring a frequency of five times a second, that means five waves take up ten meters. That makes the wavelength 2 meters. Or, you can go at it from another direction. If you know the wavelength, and the frequency, you can deduce the speed; in our example, a 2 meter wave passes 5 times a second, so the speed is 10 m/s.
The speed of light is invariably represented by c and we met it in an unexpected place, buried in Maxwell’s Equations. For light, we can write the following:
c = λν
(If you have trouble remembering which one is which, remember lambda and length both start with L. If you can’t remember which one of those funky symbols is lambda…well, I don’t know a good trick to remember that, so hopefully you just can remember. It’s easy if you’re looking at the capitals: Λ and Ν, because capital nu even looks like an N.)
OK, back to our story. Young was able to demonstrate that light was a wave in 1800, by measuring its wavelength.
This measurement relied on the light waves interfering with themselves. And that’s another thing about waves I’ve gotta explain.
Imagine an ocean wave approaching a breakwater head on. If there is a wide gap in the breakwater, much wider than the wavelength, the waves will simply go through the gap, remaining parallel straight lines.
But if that gap is much less than a wavelength, something else happens. The gap behaves as if were a source of waves, and on the other side of the breakwater, waves ripple out as if a stone had been dropped in the gap. This is diffraction, and it can even force a laser beam to spread out. Doing it to a ray of sunlight through a very narrow slit was strong evidence that light was a wave; particles would simply have barged through the opening without changing direction.
Even better, what if there are two gaps in the breakwater? Then you have two different “sources” of waves for the far side of the breakwater, and the waves they produce will criss-cross. You can set yourself at some fixed point and find that at some places, both wave peaks (and both wave troughs) hit that point at the same time, resulting in the wave being twice as high there, and at other points, the trough of one wave will hit you the same time the peak of the other does, and vice versa…and they cancel each other out. The water is calm where you are.
Now go to the shore, and some parts of the shore will get very high waves, and others will get calm.
Picture, instead, light passing through two slits, being projected on a screen. You should see bright and dark bands where the waves add or cancel, respectively.
And this was done by Young in 1800, also.
But it was his measuring the wavelength that is key here. He found that light’s wavelenth is less than a millionth of a meter, depending on the color. Violet light’s wavelength would be in the neighborhood of 400 nanometers (nm, a nanometer is one billionth of a meter), while red light would come in at 700 nm).
We can get the frequency (what’s the frequency, Dan?) this way:
c = λν
c/λ = ν
So let’s see; about 300,000,000 m/s divided by say 500nm (a nice yellow color) gives: 600,000,000,000,000 hertz, or 600 terahertz (Thz, tera = trillion).
600 trillion is more than the national debt…well, this week anyway; check back next week, and that many waves go past you every second when you’re out in the sun, or for that matter, basking in light from a compact fluorescent bulb.
If you get the idea that a lot of progress was made on light in 1800-1801, you are right.
On the subject of stars, all investigations which are not ultimately reducible to simple visual observations…are necessarily denied to us…We shall never by any means be able to study their chemical composition.Auguste Comte, 1835
This seems like a reasonable stance. How are we going to get to the stars to take a sample? However, this one wouldn’t age well. (Though oddly enough the first part of this remained true!) It was already coming undone twenty years before he wrote it.
And it almost continued into 1802. In that year, Wollaston (who would shortly discover rhodium and palladium–more chemists doing physics and vice versa) noted that there appeared to be a few gaps in the solar spectrum rather than it being a smooth continuum, but he didn’t pursue this.
In 1814, Joseph von Fraunhofer, working on improving optical glass, would invent the spectroscope for the specific purpose of obtaining spectra. He noticed a dark line in the light coming from flame, counted 576 such lines in sunlight, and noted other lines in the light coming from various stars. He was able to rule out the atmosphere as the cause because the lines were different for different stars.
There are now over half a million known of these “Fraunhofer lines”
It had long been known that different chemicals could glow differing colors when heated in flame; soon other scientists were using a spectroscope to look at what these colors were made of. They often saw that the spectrum of these glows consisted of a number of bright lines against a dark background; the exact opposite of the sun’s black lines against a bright background.
Talbot was able to tell lithium from strontium by this means. Both gave off a red light, but lithium was carmine and strontium, scarlet.
It turned out that the bright lines and dark lines were often at the same frequency; it turned out that the dark lines were due to something absorbing light, and the bright lines were that same substance emitting light.
In the mid 1850s scientists began to realize that every element had its own characteristic spectra, and by 1865 they were attributing specific bands to specific elements.
Hydrogen, it turns out, has by far the simplest spectrum. There are four lines in the visible spectrum, at 656.274 nm (red), 486.135 nm (cyan), 434.0972 nm (bluish-purple), and 410.1734 nm (very purple). There are a couple of additional lines whose wavelengths are below 400 nm, and therefore technically considered ultraviolet, but some people can see them: at 397.0075 & 388.9064 nm.
Most other elements have dozens of lines in their visible spectra.
And now we could analyze the stars chemically, though Comte did have it right in one respect: we were still using their light, because we still can’t do anything else.
In 1868, in fact, a set of totally unknown lines was noticed in the Sun, and it was eventually concluded that this was due to an unknown element. We had no idea which element it was; I imagine that after Mendeleev published the periodic table people were guessing it would fill one of the holes he left open in that table. (There was no known way of predicting what the spectrum of an element would be; you had to measure it and catalog it for future use. Today we can predict hydrogen’s, but others are difficult if not impossible.)
The element was known to be on the sun (and nowhere else), so it was named after the sun, Helios in Greek mythology, so (figuring it was a metal) they named it helium.
Other elements were discovered through the use of spectroscopes, which would tell scientists their sample contained something new. Cesium, rubidium, indium, and thallium were all discovered this way, and…every single one of them is named after the color of its spectral lines, sky blue, deep red, indigo, and sea green, respectively.
The 1860s were also the time when light was first recognized to be an electromagnetic wave, thanks to Faraday and Maxwell.
I told this story quite some time ago, and probably should not have, I should have left it for now. But it bears repeating even so.
In 1842, an Austrian scientist named Christian Doppler described what we now call the “Doppler Effect.” He was working with sound, not light, but it turns out the Doppler effect also applies to light.
Although the mechanism behind sound is very different from that of light, a source of sound still sends out waves in expanding spheres, just as a light bulb (or the sun) does. And the wavelength of sound corresponds directly to pitch: A short wavelength is a high pitch compared to a longer wavelength.
Sound travels through air (or other materials) as its medium. What happens if the source of sound is moving?
If it is moving towards you, at (say) half the speed of sound, then something curious happens. If it emits the peak of a wave at a certain time, well, by the time it emits the second peak, it has moved half a wavelength towards you. So what you will hear a sound of half the wavelength that was emitted, or twice the pitch (an octave higher for you music folks). Similarly if the same source moves away at the same speed, it will emit the second peak half a wavelength further away, so you will hear a pitch with 50% longer wavelength (a perfect fifth lower).
This effect was coming to people’s attention because they could hear it in train whistles as the train passed by. Of course the train might only be moving at 10-20 percent of the speed of sound, but that’s more than enough. At first people thought the train engineers were doing something to cause the phenomenon, just trolling the people outside the train, but that would have required multiple whistles at different pitches, and besides as far as we know none of them were ancestors of Donald Trump (though who knows about Melania’s family tree).
If you can determine the frequency emitted, and the frequency heard, you can calculate the speed of the source, but only along a radial line. It’s no good for transverse motion. (Likewise if you want to work with wavelengths.)
The Doppler effect also works on things that sound (or light) bounces off of. In fact this is how the local constabulary’s radar gun works; it knows the frequency of emission (since it is doing the emitting); it just senses the frequency of the returning signal and does the calculation and informs the officer whether or not he’s one step closer to meeting the quota he denies having to meet.
As I said, light is subject to the Doppler effect, and it’s possible to use that effect to determine how fast a star is moving in the radial direction. (Painstaking, detailed observations over time will reveal how fast it’s moving in the transverse direction, at least assuming other stars in the photographs are much farther away, and provided we know how far away the star is.)
Simply take the star’s spectrum and see how much it is shifted. If it is shifted towards shorter wavelenths (becomes bluer) it’s moving towards us, if shifted towards longer wavelenths (becomes redder) it’s moving away.
But wait…a star puts out all frequencies. If some blue wavelength gets shortened by 10 nm, won’t some slightly less blue wavelength get shifted into the position as it gets shifted 10 nm as well?
Aaah, but you see, a star’s light doesn’t contain all frequencies. The Fraunhofer lines are darkk! And we know what their frequencies are “supposed” to be, so when we see them shift, we can measure the red- or blue-shift of the star and get its velocity.
(Typical radial velocities are in the tens of kilometers per second, relative to the Sun which is also moving along with the herd. The true speed with respect to the center of the galaxy is a couple of hundred kilometers per second.)
Sometimes we can even tell how fast a star is rotating! Consider, the side that is moving towards you will look slightly blue-shifted, and the side rotating away from you will be slightly red-shifted. This will cause the Fraunhofer lines to get thicker as they are shifted in both directions at once, though they will also not appear as dark.
Neill de Grasse Tyson (yeah, I know, but here he’s talking about stuff he knows quite a bit about) considers the discovery of the Fraunhofer lines the birth of astrophysics, because it opened the door to knowing the composition and motion of the stars.
Hot objects glow. You know this from watching embers in a fire or perhaps you’ve seen molten metal glowing either in person or in a video.
It’s also what makes an incandescent light bulb work. The filament gets hot; as much as 3000 K. Because it is hot, it emits light over a spread of frequencies. That would be enough to cool it off, because light carries off the energy, but of course there’s an electric current going through it and the filament is a resistor which means there’s a voltage across it and, well, power = current x voltage, and power is just a rate of energy, so more energy is coming into the filament as it is radiating away. (Radiating like this is one of three major ways to transfer heat, the other two are direct contact and convection.)
If you’ve ever seen an unfrosted incandescent light burning, that dinky little filament is bright. How bright it is, per surface area, is a direct consequence of its temperature. Imagine looking at a molten blob of metal at that temperature; it’d be very bright, every square millimeter of it putting out as much light as a square millimeter of the filament (which might not even have one square millimeter of surface area).
As it turns out a perfectly black object will behave in an ideal manner, so this is called black-body radiation.
Another thing that turns out to depend directly on the temperature is where the “peak” of the curve is. For some reason, the glow isn’t just done at any old frequency, there’s a distinct distribution, which is why objects that are glowing from the heat can be colored from red (relatively cool) to orange to white, and even blue. (That requires a temperature so high that you’ve probably never seen anything glowing blue hot…other, that is, than many stars in the night sky.)
Scientists were unable to explain why the curve didn’t just go higher and higher into the ultraviolet, rather than displaying the distinct hump you see here.
But one thing that should be plain, is that a 5000 K “white hot” body emits far, far more radiation than a 3000 K “red hot” body. At every single wavelength, even the red ones, the white hot object far outshines the red hot one. In fact, it turns out that the total emission goes up as the fourth power of the temperature: Double the temperature, increase the emission by 2x2x2x2 = 16 times!
Michelson and Morley
Albert Michelson was fascinated by light and experimented on it a lot. He pioneered the use of the interferometer…and I’m not going to try to explain how it works in brief, other than it splits a beam of light and sends one half at a ninety degree angle to the first. Both parts of the beam reflect off mirrors and meet at a detector. Do the waves constructively or destructively interfere? If destructive, you can shift one of the mirrors slightly to get constructive interference, and the distance you shifted is half a wavelength (so one can measure the wavelength of light by this means).
Link here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michelson_interferometer
If you get the thing set up so the two beams constructively interfere, you can rotate the entire apparatus 45 degrees to see if that changes due to, say, the light travelling at a different speed in that direction, because we (riding along on planet Earth) are moving through the medium through which the waves propagate.
If you were to try a similar experiment with sound on a moving platform, it would appear to move slower when measured in the direction you’re traveling, faster when measured backwards in the direction you’re getting farther from, and in the middle somewhere, just about at the rest velocity, to the sides. That’s because you are moving through the air that sound propagates through.
In 1887 Michelson and Morley built a very accurate interferometer, isolated it from vibration as best they could, and decided to try to detect our velocity through the medium it was presumed to move through, known as the aether.
And got nothing. We weren’t moving through the medium, and that was true no matter when we took the measurement, or where. At different times of the year the earth ought to be moving in different directions, so we should see something sometime even if the aether were moving along with the earth at one time of the year.
But nothing. Apparently the speed of light didn’t depend on how much the observer was moving; it was dead constant (in a vacuum).
Hertz and Radio
There is just one more story, before we assume the runner’s crouch in preparation for dashing across the 1895 line next week.
Heinrich Hertz (1857-1894, yes he didn’t even live to see 40) was looking for a topic for his doctoral thesis and noted the claim made by Maxwell in 1864 that light was an electromagnetic wave.
He reasoned that he ought to be able to create electromagnetic waves of much lower frequency by setting up a couple of long straight wires in line, with a tiny gap between them. By getting a spark to jump the gap he could set up a standing wave in the wires, which would presumably cause EM waves to radiate away from the wires.
So how would he detect the waves? He’d set up another circuit with a gap some distance away, and see if sparks jumped the gap in response to an electric field–the electric field of his propagating wave.
And indeed it was so! It was 1886 and Hertz had just discovered radio. He was transmitting, rather fitfully, at about 50 MHz, a frequency now used by television. Ironically, he thought it would be of absolutely no use whatsoever.
Hertz also noticed something rather peculiar. It was hard to see the spark at the receiver, so he’d put it in a dark box. But when he did that, he had to bring the two terminals closer together to get the spark to happen. Something in the light, apparently, made it easier for a spark to jump the gap. He put a window in the box, made of glass, and the spark jumping distance remained the same, no matter how bright the light was.
When he use quartz, instead of glass, he could move the terminals further apart again.
What was the difference? Glass blocks ultraviolet light. Quartz does not.
So there is something about ultraviolet waves that gives the electrical fluid in the receiver a bit of an extra kick. But not visible light, and certainly not infrared.
No matter how bright you make visible light, it doesn’t help. If light is a wave, the brightness corresponds to the amplitude, and the energy depends on the amplitude. But ultraviolet had an effect, even ultraviolet of much lower amplitude.
This is known as the “photoelectric effect” and, since this didn’t make any sense, it’s our 1895 mystery of the week.
Hertz, alas, passed in 1894…so he wouldn’t ever know the answer, nor how very useful radio turned out to be.
Obligatory PSAs and Reminders
China is Lower than Whale Shit
To conclude: My standard Public Service Announcement. We don’t want to forget this!!!
Remember Hong Kong!!!
Zhōngguò shì gè hùndàn !!!
China is asshoe !!!
China is in the White House
Since Wednesday, January 20 at Noon EST, the bought-and-paid for Joseph Biden has been in the White House. It’s as good as having China in the Oval Office.
Joe Biden is Asshoe
China is in the White House, because Joe Biden is in the White House, and Joe Biden is identically equal to China. China is Asshoe. Therefore, Joe Biden is Asshoe.
But of course the much more important thing to realize:
Joe Biden Didn’t Win
Qiáo Bài dēng méi yíng !!!
Joe Biden didn’t win !!!
There ain’t no justice!!!
— Little fish
There certainly isn’t!!
— Millions of Deplorables
Tu peux le répéter!
Infiltrated by communists! They had no chance. Ain’t no justice!
Unless you know defense lawyers.
One of my buddies is the greatest.
That’s one side of the coin.
The other is the prosecutions that should have happened, but have not.
Based on past posts, I was expecting something meaty this time.
Instead, it just seems a little……Light.
Hahaha I get it now!
I would have thought you’d find it illuminating.
I’m already somewhat lit, already. After all, I was actually signing checks to purchase wave division multiplexers when this strip came out — https://dilbert.com/strip/1989-07-11 — and roughly understood what they did. Plus, beer.
The heavy stuff, notably gravity and mass, have already appeared earlier on, so it makes sense to have some light stuff, as was hinted at when the mathematically-heavy Maxwell’s Equations were presented.
Yep. They should be moved over to the heavy side layer, but not sentenced to life in prism…
But it’s full of bright ideas…
Worth watching again!
(I had to delete the video. Gab’s horrible auto-play that can’t be shut off just messes up this page, so it had to go.)
Going back and reading the science now! 😃
Typo Alert: “darkk” (as in “darkk winter”).
It wass a darkk and stormyy nightt 🙂
(Gollum has been twiddling the text 🙂 )….
“My precious” he says to the ten ounce bar of rhodium…
What was that song again?
Go tell Aunt, Rhodium…
(the golden goose is dead) (or, at least, losing value)…
Actually, there is a little thing I can add to this, jumping off from the comment about glass being opaque to ultraviolet light while quartz is transparent….
From that statement alone, one can deduce that opacity and transparency are not absolutes, but are dependent on the part of the spectrum one is interested in. There are even things that only pass certain types of visible light — they’re generally known as “filters”, and if you have a red filter (or red piece of cellophane) and illuminate an object with only red, it will be difficult to tell the difference between a green object and a black one. I should also note that reflectivity behaves the same way — there are things that look shiny in one color that look dull in other colors.
Similarly, things like seawater pass only certain colors. If you have something bright red at the surface, it will be quite dark at 60 feet deep. Contrariwise, if you have something lime green at the surface, it will just be “light-colored” at 60 feet, that contrasts nicely with your “dark” that used to be bright red.
Now, as far as practical matters go, I had a discussion one time with someone who was playing with a lasercutter that used a 40W CO2 infrared laser. To put this beam into perspective, the output of the laser is about a cm across and round, and just like the hand laserpointer you’ve seen in presentations, it can go several yards without noticeably spreading. But it’s completely invisible.
If you beam this laser into a bucket of water, you will get a 1 cm circle of boiling water about a sixteenth of an inch thick (it’s kind of hard to tell because it’s moving). If this gets at your eyes, it can cause serious permanent damage in tiny fractions of a second — far faster than you can blink. And you probably wouldn’t know to blink because it’s invisible.
One very popular option for this is to outfit one of the mirrors with a passthrough to allow a visible light laser to be co-linear with the CO2 laser. That makes it much easier to see where it’s operating. But it also creates a hazard.
Let’s take a standard black Hefty bag. Opaque, right? Point a little hand laser at it — completely blocked — “must block laser light.” Except that it’s completely transparent to the CO2 laser. So let’s say someone does a dry run and runs their lasercutter across the material with just the spotter laser and the main laser shut off. They note that sometimes there are reflections of red on the ceiling, so they mask off part of that area with a Hefty bag and do another run: Great — no reflections anywhere!
Must be safe, right? Ummmmm…..wrong.
First, even if the areas reflecting the red light would reflect the CO2 laser, the Hefty material wouldn’t block anything — anything in those reflection zones is going to get a potentially unhealthy amount of invisible laser energy.
Second, if the CO2 laser reflects off of different areas than the red light laser, you might get “sparkles and flashes” of CO2 laser light headed for your eyes. Unless you have several spares (of eyes), this is a VERY BAD idea.
Lasercutters are fun, interesting, and very capable devices, but they also can be quite dangerous. And unlike a table saw — which is OBVIOUSLY dangerous, they can be dangerous in ways that require a bit of knowledge of physics to understand.
And this is HUGELY true when considering budget devices like K40 lasercutters from China. Not only can you expect them to lack modern American safety features, you also cannot rely on any of the apparent safety interlocks/functions working properly. Oh, and the standard controller board is stuffed with malware — be prepared to rework one with an Arduino or Pi.
The woman I was talking with was a “scroller” [adroit user of scrollsaws], who was experimenting with a lasercutter. She seemed to think that it was roughly as dangerous as a scrollsaw (i.e. not very). I spent about 10 minutes raving, trying to convince her that it was more like a table saw (famous for removing fingers) in danger level and typically attacked the eyes (which have 1/5 as many spares as fingers).
I was nearby when one of my best friends tangled with a table saw. He was cutting up scrap lumber for firewood and I heard the motor come to a sudden halt, and somehow I knew…just before he screamed.
I never want to hear that scream again.
Good stuff. Bidenistas and Bidenazis are finally waking everybody up with their CHICOM PROPAGANDA.
Judge sides with Florida in cruise lawsuit, says CDC overstepped authority
A federal judge ruled in favor of Florida in a lawsuit against the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, saying the agency overstepped its authority.
Judge Steven Merryday said the CDC is “preliminarily enjoined” from enforcing its conditional sail order — a set of guidelines for cruise companies wishing to resume sailing in the U.S., including test cruises and vaccine requirements — beginning July 18.
“This order finds that Florida is highly likely to prevail on the merits of the claim that CDC’s conditional sailing order and the implementing orders exceed the authority delegated to CDC,” the ruling said.
Merryday said the CDC has until July 2 to propose new guidelines for cruises “both permitting cruise ships to sail timely and remaining within CDC’s authority.”
“Florida establishes a strong likelihood that many or almost all cruise ships will remain unable to sail for the entire summer season. And each day the cruise industry faces uncertainty about when cruises can resume, Florida not only suffers a concrete economic injury resulting from reduced revenue and increased unemployment spending, but Florida faces an increasingly threatening and imminent prospect that the cruise industry will depart the state,” the ruling said.
Follow the science, until oops
Ivy League Data ‘Accidentally’ Reveals Lockdowns Crushed Working Class, Left Elites Unscathed
ByTeam Terrell Published 3 hours ago
Data analysis conducted and released by Harvard University, Brown University, and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation proves exactly what conservatives and Republican lawmakers have been saying about the devastating consequences of liberal policies during the pandemic.
The analysis calculates how different employment levels have been impacted during the pandemic, and “findings reveal that government lockdown orders devastated workers at the bottom of the financial food chain but left the upper-tier actually better off” reports the Foundation for Economic Education (FEE).
Employment levels were examined in January 2020, prior to the coronavirus pandemic, and before lockdown and other restrictions were implemented. They were then compared to employment figures from March 31, 2021. The Ivy League schools posted the data graphs on tracktherecovery.org but provide only graphs and no written analysis of what the findings show. Perhaps the reason is that “of course, Ivy League researchers almost certainly did not intend to expose the failings of big government pandemic policies when they set out to catalog employment data” writes FEE.
FEE did turn the data into a summary, and, “The picture painted by this comparison is one of working-class destruction.” FEE explains:
Employment for lower-wage workers, defined as earning less than $27,000 annually, declined by a whopping 23.6 percent over the time period. Employment for middle-wage workers, defined as earning from $27,000 to $60,000, declined by a modest 4.5 percent. However, employment for high-wage workers, defined as earning more than $60,000, actually increased 2.4 percent over the measured time period despite the country’s economic turmoil.
While some critics may blame the pandemic and not liberal government policies for the devastation, FEE writes “there’s no doubt the virus itself played some role” however, “government lockdowns were undoubtedly the single biggest factor.” Supporting evidence is “heavy lockdown states have consistently had much higher unemployment rates than states that took a more laissez-faire approach.”
See also: “I would rather be governed by the first 2,000 people in the telephone directory, than by the Harvard University faculty.” — William F. Buckley, 1961
Amen – jury of peers
LULZ – if Mediaite is talking about it, it’s getting mainstream traction.
Kevin McCarthy – Poised to Be Speaker If GOP Retakes the House – Is Asked How He’d Feel About Trump Becoming Speaker
By Michael LucianoJun 18th, 2021, 8:15 pm
At the end of the interview, Kilmeade asked McCarthy point blank, “Would you be for President Trump becoming Speaker?”
After some nervous laughter, McCarthy said, “You know, I’ve talked to President Trump many times. He tells me he wants to be Speaker, and I think he should be president.”
If he’s Speaker, then he becomes President if POTUS and Veep become ineligible in quick succession without a confirmed appointment of a new Veep.
I remember having this LULZ discussion here a couple of years ago about how VSGPOTUSDJT could maximize his time in office under the Constitution by serving split terms. Now I feel like I’m being whipped back around by Trump gravity.
If he becomes POTUS again after 1/21/23, he gets (a day short of) 10 years in office, IIRC.
Speaking of Trump gravity…..the CCP defector contacted the DIA….not the CIA, not the State Dept., not the FBI. And the DIA didn’t tell the others for months.
This gives me a ray of hope.
Me, as well.
Sorry to hear about your pooch. That was a tremendous run, but it’s best if you allow your buddy some rest before you run together again.
Thank you, cthulhu. Meg and Ari once would run me down our mountain front yard. I remember stepping into a little hole and falling flat on my face while holding onto a dog leash in each hand. So many lovely memories that make me smile even now. Only God knows when I will have completed my tasks here and I leave it in his hands.
That is beyond belief. Makes Adam Housley very gullible or suspect, in my opinion.
(i’ll take a wait-and-see approach to this…)
Why would he defect to the FBI? Is that a common thing for political dissidents or defectors?
Why would FBI, headed by Bidenazis then hand him over to DIA and not CIA? Why did the State Department know nothing about it…to the point of being humiliated by China?
All good questions…
I’m hoping to see a timeline of the events…
(Pre-January 20, 2021)
Yes. I bet we won’t get that for a long while. 🙂
(sadly, you may be right…)
Because he defected to the one place a Chinese intelligence officer would know was the right place to go, if he genuinely wanted to do the right thing.
Does anybody actually think that overseas intelligence doesn’t know how corrupt our agencies are? Jeez, that’s their raison d’etre.
He is only allowed to be elected twice under the 22nd amendment. If he somehow succeeds to the office for a partial term, and that partial term is MORE than half a term, he’s only allowed to be elected once.
See, that’s where I’m not sure. I’m pretty sure that if he succeeds to office for LESS than half a term, he can be re-elected. But if he succeeds to office for MORE than half a term, I don’t think he can be re-elected.
I just read the text of the amendment. And you just said the same thing I did, I think.
One could make the argument, as Lin Wood and Sydney seem to imply, as I understand them, that since fraud invalidates everything, Biden would not have been president and the time he occupied the White House would also be invalidated and Trumps second 4 year term starts once he gets inaugurated, not as the 47th president, but still the 45th.
I’d drop the fraud claims like a hot piece of brass the instant he got in.
Just as long as we understand, which I think we do, that President Trump does not need to run for Congress for this to happen, but can simply be confirmed by the House for this position. Also should this thing occur, he need not fulfill all the duties of Speaker, but can delegate those duties on a regular basis and only stand in when he feels he should.
Glenn Greenwald Asks Reasonable Questions About the FBI’s Involvement in January 6th Capitol Hill Event
Just out of curiosity, what in the HE!! are we doing having ANYTHING to do with Iran?
I thought, being that they are a HOSTILE COUNTRY, a SPONSOR OF TERRORISM, and a SWORN ENEMY, that we are forbidden to do business with them. And that wold include any “voting sites”…..
Then again, maybe some bits could be shifted…
‘Exodus of the rich’ to Florida threatens disaster for NYC
Even post-COVID, the exodus of wealthy New Yorkers will continue until the plague of city mismanagement also ends.
Goldman Sachs is relocating 100-plus key employees from the city to Palm Beach, Fla., to save money and grow its operations strategy beyond Wall Street. That includes partners who earn a million a year before typically far larger bonuses.
So while Wall Street execs who are pushing their people to return to the office make a lot of headlines, other CEOs are looking to move the entire office, or part of it, after the last 15 months proved how practical it is.
Notably, Bloomberg found that only 9,000 of the 19,000 New Yorkers who moved to Florida to ride out COVID say they definitely plan to return.
The wealthy have been fleeing the city all pandemic long, to lower-tax, lower-cost-of-living and lower-crime alternatives. That means big trouble ahead for those left behind, as the top 2 percent of earners supply 51 percent of New York’s income tax take.
Add in middle-class flight, and all the young upstaters leaving for lack of job opportunities, and you see why New York is one of just seven states to lose a House seat after the 2020 Census.
Well, as long as they leave any DemCommunist mindset in New York, good.
If they bring that crap to Florida, as they have to the large urban areas of North Carolina, it will be a disaster.
A more accurate title may be:
>>‘Exodus of the rich’ from NYC to Florida threatens disaster for Florida<<
At this point, I care less about a disaster in one city of NY than a disaster in the entire state of FL.
FL is on the way up; NYC (and NY) is on the way down.
The danger is to FLORIDA … and the article clearly states the opposite / converse, in an attempt to generate sympathy – from the readers – for NYC / NY.
Sympathy for NY and Kwoe-moe, over FL and DeSantis?
On the IRS letter to Christians Engaged. FYI First Liberty is taking up their case.
IRS weaponized against Christians? This is war (footage Flashpoint 6/17/2021)
Texas Power Companies Remotely Raise Temperatures Amid Energy Shortages…
Houston resident Brandon English, whose home has an internet-connected smart thermostat installed, was shocked to learn of the practice after his wife and infant daughter “woke up sweating.”
Speaking with KHOU 11, English stated that despite his wife turning down the temperature before taking a nap with their 3-year-old child, the temperature in their home rose significantly.
“They’d been asleep long enough that the house had already gotten to 78 degrees,” English said. “So they woke up sweating.”
English, who expressed concerns over the potential for his young child to overheat and dehydrate, said it wasn’t long after that his wife received a text alert noting that the thermostat had been remotely altered during a three-hour “energy saving event.”
I have two Ecobee smart thermostats made in Canada but I get to choose whether to let them connect to the internet or not. Mine do not connect. For thermostats, I thought they were rather expensive ($500 each at the time), but I love them and only adjusted the temperature range once until I found what felt comfortable by letting them handle things on auto.
There are many ways of doing “smart” thermostats these days using parts and algorithms that are entirely within your control
These guys have great documentation too. They reminded me of Silicon Valley in the 80s. Such a fun time!
BTW, that’s the best description of Hertz’s spark-gap radio I’ve ever seen, and it allowed me to see it clearly for the first time — unlike prior occasions when it was this murky thing over there *hand wave* *hand wave*, before moving on to more modern implementations.
Thanks for another enlightened Saturday post.
That the wavelength of sound has relation to pitch is easy to see with some musical instruments. Cellos and violins are similar in overall construction, but the larger cello plays music at a lower pitch. Larger bells ring at a lower pitch than smaller ones. And looking at a church organ with all its pipes in different sizes, again there is a close relationship between the length and diameter of the pipe and the pitch of the sound it makes.
The size and shape of the cranium also determines the range of singers. Basses and true altos almost always have longer faces. Sopranos and tenors are more round.
Now it makes perfect sense why the Chinese were so contemptuous of the Biden folks at the Alaska meeting.
They must have realized that Blinken had no idea what had happened. If the Bidenazis did have control of the defector, he would’ve been turned over to the Chinese overlords.
That they didn’t and don’t is extremely meaningful.
Enjoy the show.
“According to Spy Talk, Dong’s name came up during the Sino-American Summit held in Alaska in March 2021:
In a tweet on Wednesday, Han [Dr. Han Lianchao, a Chinese defector], citing an unnamed source, alleged that China’s foreign minister Wang Yi and Communist Party foreign affairs boss Yang Jiechi demanded that the Americans return Dong and Secretary of State Anthony Blinken refused.
RedState’s sources say that Chinese officials did demand that the United States return Dong, but Blinken didn’t exactly refuse; at that time Blinken wasn’t aware that Dong was with the US government, the sources say, and told China that the US didn’t have Dong.
It’s only in the last three to four weeks that anyone outside DIA knew about the defector, according to RedState’s sources. Prior to that time, DIA was vetting the information provided and confronting Langley officials with what they’d learned without divulging the source. ”
Oh, that is a very good catch!
We are no doubt getting just a hint of the information Dong has shared with the DIA.
Imagine the scrambling going on behind the scenes.
Dong defects in mid-February. Probably sharing some info with DIA beforehand.
Has been in DIA hands for nearly five months now.
God bless and keep Dong and his daughter safe.
Where’s Julian Assange when you need him?
Seriously the Bidenese likely have the DIA all wrapped up in bubble wrap by now. Hoping I’m wrong, but they will do whatever they need to do to stop this plethora of information from leaking to the public.
Not sure. Why would they seed this story for nothing? Because that is what it is if, as you say, the bad guys have everything sewed up.
“We have it all … “
Respectfully, what good has, “we’ve got it all” done for us?
Pardon if this is Eeyore, but it smacks of feel good, without any there, there.
kalbo, I have the same level of frustration regarding Veritas and Judicial Watch.
These two fine groups, which are essentially doing the job of DOJ, continue to unearth all manner of perfidy in governmental antics, yet nothing seems to ever come of it.
The Black Hole is indeed large.
Hell yea, they are doing great work. AND hope they continue to do so.
I only take exception to the, “we have everything” saying, as IF we’ll see arersts and prosecutions.
Remaining hopeful good guys will prevail. Alternative is wholly unacceptable.
kalbo…oh, I have hopes for a actual destination for all of the unveiled truth, also…but as of yet, the alternative scores highest, which, I agree, is unacceptable.
And note that Dong didn’t defect to any agency other than defense. He had access to know the real source of power right now.
I would not trust the FBI angle. It’s all about the sources, and the FBI would have leaked that they had him. I’m thinking Dong knew the score and who to go to first given his job.
Any opinions on Adam Housley ?
Not really. Don’t follow him all that closely.
He’s not as connected to the truth as he thinks.
I believe that his reporting is honest… I will have to see whether or not his sources are… And whether the information that the sources passed on is accurate or not…
Yes. He seems like an okay guy.
He used to work for Fox News and he left (I believe because they felt they were suppressing real news).
(I do not know if he’s under any nondisclosure agreement, but I would assume that he is)
I believe Housley honestly reports what he is told. I also believe that one of his sources could be coerced through whatever means to tell him a lie or two. Which I believe in this case is what happened.
This Dong guy was Chinese intelligence. If anybody in the world would know the score on who to approach in America, this guy is that person.
Anyone reporting he went somewhere other than DIA is wrong, IMHO.
(I was trying to find something I came across with the theory that Dong is a double agent(C_A), but I can’t find it right now…)
Oh jeez. This is like a movie or something.
Gotta wait til the dust settles…
That sounds like disinformation. I say that because it’s just now that the info about Dong is really surfacing.
If it was true they would’ve been all over it much earlier, I think. His defection would’ve leaked and they would’ve discredited him asap.
Of course, it’s possible that report is true. At this point, anything could hapoen.
“At this point, anything could hapoen.”
In Steve Bannons War Room it was suggested it is not Dong, but somebody else, since Dong supposedly surfaced back in China again.
However, I think the last part is CCP disinformation.
Which would mean it’s the right Dong, as the wrong Dong is gone…
Who would benefit from his defection?
If you were an intelligence official in a high place, would you defect to a Chinese pawn (Biden et al) who would most likely turn you over the moment orders came through from Xi?
Is he a double, double agent?
What reason would he do a fake defection? To seed disinformation to our Intel agencies?
If he’s back in China, as the report says, how did he get back there and out of the hands of our agents?
Why would the CCP admit their double, double agent was back in China? To thumb their nose at us? Okaayyy. That would mean all the info the double, double agent gave the US was immediately discredited.
I like to think of numerous possibilities.
Shades of “Get Smart” and their anti-anti-anti-missle-missle 😆
The Dong is over, but the malady lingers on???
“Surfaced back in China again”?
Did he forget something when he left… ?
If this is true, it likely means that the Bidenese had the DIA surrender him and they in turn sent him back.
But we’ll wait for more info of course…
Laughable. Housley is being used like a cheap trick.
His intelligence background.
Here’s more hints of the plan to demonize Trump supporters in the military and implement woke ideology in the ranks, not to mention further the “insurrection” narrative.
Oh so transparent.
“Also in February, Austin instructed a one-day stand-down across the Defense Department pausing regular activities to address extremism and white nationalism in the ranks — an issue Austin declared as a priority after a number of rioters at the U.S. Capitol in January were found to have military backgrounds.”
🤬 🤬 🤬
Monkey business going on?
The controversy over Bill Gates becoming the largest private farmland owner in the US.
People are drawing connections between Gates’s vast farmlands and climate change advocacy.
Such an ugly face too.
Well, let’s deconstruct this little scenario:
First: It was Marc Lamont Hill (fired from CNN, now working for Black News Network) who asked Dr. Khilanani if “white people are psychopathic.” And it was she who replied, “Yes, I think so”, then embroidered on that from there.
It was Dr. Khilanani who gave the lecture to the Yale University Medical School Child Study Center on April 6, 2021, talking, about other things, her fantasies regarding “unloading a revolver into the head of any white person who got in my way.”
Then: After investigative reporter Bari Weiss blew the lid off the Yale “lecture”, Dr. khilanani has since, on her Facebook page both tried to walk back on what she said in her ‘lecture”, and to “defend” what she said.
Dr. Aruna Khilanani is an MD psychiatrist who is of Hindu ancestry. Not an African-American.
Now: Since her “lecture” at Yale, she has permanently closed her New York City office. Her website lists an email address for contact.
Notice that her “lecture” was given to the Yale Medical School Child Study Center.
It would appear that Yale Medical School is OK with CRT being taught to medical school students, and also to children.
http://www.facebook.com/ search: Aruna Khilanani MD
One amazing capability of psychopaths is their propensity for projection, including projecting projection onto others. Even more so if one holds an advanced degree and has a fluent vocabulary in psychological babble.
This woman needs to be institutionalized.
It’s NOT mandatory, and still needs to be introduced by the individual countries.
No likely not mandatory per say, however the wife wishes to visit family and I checked the visa requirements. Must have a test with in 72hrs of travel and if no proof of vaccination then a 14 day mandatory quarantine is required upon arrival.
So in essence they are making it very difficult for you to travel without it.
It’s up to the individual countries to implement the “Impfpass”. They are free to make the requirements more draconian (as I think the UK does, even though they’re no longer part of the EU).
The problam is not just the destination land, but the origination land, too. And I can just see Bye, Done pulling yet another stupid stunt.
There are a lot of people here just saying no. And the YSM/MCM aren’t reporting that, nor is the RKI (Robert Koch Institute, our CDC). Then again, they diddle the numbers just like the Climastrologists do.
I think last week’s misadventures by British Air and vaxxing may get more people to pay attention. Having a crew member keel over due to the jab would be very unsettling, at best…
Dora…here is the deal:
Belgium ALLOWS, as of today…
(This is what you must do…According to us…”
This insanity must be stopped by some means…tar and feathers time???
One America News Network
Chinese virus vaccine produces ‘toxic’ effects, British researchers call on govt. to halt use
They are talking about ALL VACCINES!!!
General McInerney https://t.me/GeneralMcInerney/1159
Creating terror, to “fight” terror?
Job security, over national security?
The three-letter crowd has lost their way …
We have this problem out here in the West, where people depend on forest firefighting for their livelihoods. No fires, no money. So pretty much every year that isn’t much of a fire year, one of them lights something up. We all know it happens, but how do you stop it? Once the fires are burning, that’s it.
My personal take is it would cost the taxpayers FAR less in dollars and suffering if we just paid the firefighters whether there were fires or not. That gives them incentive to put them out quick so they don’t work as long or hard for the same amount of money.
>>”No fires, no money.”<<
This sounds like the credo of the Enemy, yes? – right up and down the line!
“Never let a crisis go to waste” is a similar version.
>>”if we just paid the firefighters whether there were fires or not”<<
We must REMOVE the inverted / perverted incentives.
No more having the tail “wag the dog.”
I agree. We have to be smarter than them.
Annnnd, if the forests were properly managed, the fires that DID occur, for any cause, would be smaller, and easier to put out.
This mismanagement goes back to the Carter years, if not earlier. When I was in Scouts, I did volunteer work for CDF and the USFS. THEN, a few years later, they changed the rules. Didn’t want the scrub and dead trees, etc., removed because of the poor, helpless animals and insects, who, golly gee, had been doing just fine for thousands of years with no intervention (or lack thereof).
Add to that the fact that the “Native Americans” used to start fires every so often if none happened due to lightning, in order to clean out the underbrush, diseased trees and wildlife. You’d think the greens, especially the DIVERSE ones, would know this… but the greens have NO interest in anything green except the stuff lining their pockets…. Watermelons. Green on the outside, RED on the inside…
Amen to that. Pisses me off no end!
Verse of the Day for Saturday, June 19, 2021
“In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.”
John 1:1 (KJV)
Thank You, Jesus, for blessings received and prayers answered!!!
BE MY VOICE
PRAYING ON THE ARMOR OF GOD
Father God, I now follow your command to put on the full armor of God, because my battle is not against flesh and blood but against rulers, authorities, the powers of this dark world and against spiritual forces of evil in the unseen world.
I first pray on the Belt of Truth that it may be buckled around my waist, may I be centered and encircled by your truth dear Lord. Hem me inside all that is true and right, and may I be protected and held up by the truth of your living word, in my Lord Jesus name.
I pray on the Breastplate of righteousness, please protect my vital organs and my inner man, cover my integrity, my spirit, and my soul. Guard my heart for it is the wellspring of life, please strengthen and guard the most vulnerable places in my life with that which is right, good, and noble that I might not receive a fatal blow from the enemy, in my Lord Jesus name.
I pray on the Gospel Shoes of Peace. I choose to stand in the shoes of your good news, and on the firm foundation of my Lord and Savior Jesus Christ, the solid eternal rock. All other ground is sinking sand, I pray that I will not slip or fall, but that my feet would be firmly fitted on your lordship, my Lord Jesus. I choose to stand on you, so that the peace of God, which transcends all understanding will guard my heart and mind in Christ Jesus, the eternal Rock of Ages. I receive your holy peace now my Lord, from the sole of my feet to the crown of my head, in my Lord Jesus name.
I pray the Shield of Faith into my hand now. As I take up the shield of faith, I ask that you might extinguish every dart and arrow, that is launched from the enemy to take me down spiritually, physically, mentally, emotionally, and every attempt of the enemy to destroy my joy. I ask that my faith in you would make it flame out. Extinguish every flaming arrow that would come against me, my life, my family, my home, or my ministry. May my faith always be out in front of me like a shield. Give me the courage to “faith my fears” by choosing to walk by faith and not by sight, in my Lord Jesus name.
I pray on the Helmet of Salvation, that you might protect my mind from the thoughts that can lead me astray. I choose to take every thought captive, and arrest all intentioned ideas and motives that would harm others, or distract me from your holy will for me. I submit every captured thought to the Lordship of my Lord Jesus Christ, and ask that you would imprison those thoughts that are not of you my Lord. Transform my mind and renew my thinking that I may think God thoughts, and have a sober mind that is focused on your glory. Please protect me from being double minded that I may allow my mind, I reject to live an earthly life, because I choose to live a holy one, governed by you My Lord Jesus, the prince of peace, please have my mind to be saturated with the holy mind of Christ, in my Lord Jesus name.
Finally, I take up the Sword of the Spirit which is the holy word of God, I pray this powerful offensive weapon into my hand, and ask that your holy word would be fitting for every encounter I face. As the enemy gets close to me, please give me the insight, wisdom, and skill to wield the word of God to drive away the enemy, in my Lord Jesus name.
May the enemy and his team flee from me, upon hearing the word of God spoken by the power and direction of the Holy Spirit. Give me the sword of the spirit to cut through the wiles of the devil, so that I may discern the schemes of the enemy when he is near.
With all kinds of prayers, supplication, and intercession I pray to you my Lord God as the one who fights my battles. Now that I’m in your holy powerful armor, I walk away covered and ready to face my day as you go before me, and please protect me in the midst of the spiritual warfare in this unseen world, in my Lord Jesus name.
Thank you my Lord, for the spiritual weapons of armor and prayer that you have given me. It is written no weapon formed against me shall prosper, and you will refute every tongue that accuses me.
Thank you Father God, my Lord Jesus and the Holy Spirit, that I am more than a conqueror in my Lord Jesus. I pray all of this in the mighty name of my Lord God and Savior Jesus Christ, amen.
Happy Juneteenth folks, it’s the day when Blacks in Texas learned that they were free, June 19, 1865 in Galveston.
But what does today mean?
It’s the day when Blacks found out that the first Republican President had signed the Emancipation Proclamation freeing them from the physical bondage of the Democrat Party. It was two years later, on July 4th 1867, that 150 of those same Black men met in Houston and established the Republican Party of Texas. The Democrats, in response, established the Ku Klux Klan.
Today, the Democrats are economically enslaving Blacks and have turned inner city communities into modern plantations of welfare and economic dependence.
Juneteenth is a celebration of why the Republican Party was established in 1854, the abolition of slavery. Only a flaming incompetent idiot would give the party of the jackass any credit for Juneteenth .
Just saw this on gab. Seems to me that West is looking to rid Texas of Abbott next year, which he’ll need to announce at some point fairly soon I imagine. Which sets up the “who will get the endorsement” dilemma. I don’t give a rat’s behind if Trump is going to the border with Abbott, if West runs, he should get the nod. But at this point who the hell knows – in other words, nothing would surprise me.
Governor Allen West would be awesome.
He’s already been awesome for the feckless Texas GOP. We’ve had some real losers running the show.
Hopefully he would be able to do some plumbing in the Texas House, and break up the RINO logjam there.
Yes, and yes! And if he runs and Trump doesn’t endorse him, and gives the nod to Abbott, it will be yet another eyeroll that no one can understand. I don’t live in Texas, but I have lots of family there, and they would love West to run.
Abbott is a RINO’s dream. For the rest of us Texans, he’s our nightmare.
That’s why I’m so concerned. There has to be a reason why West resigned the chairman position, and don’t you think getting rid of Abbott is his goal?
So the “endorsement” looms in the distance. If Trump doesn’t get this right people won’t know what to think, and it for sure won’t be favorable.
He HAS to do the right thing. Or the endorsements completely lose value.
It could be because the state apparatus is hopelessly RINO. That has been my experience. We are talking the old time establishment Republicans ala Bush.
There are a lot of newer groups now. More MAGA and more conservative. Have little opportunity within the apparatus.
West could win the governorship and it would be a whole new game .
I think much of what happens concerning Abbott’s future will hinge on the out come of this special session of the Texas Legislature. If the promises slide away, Abbott is likely toast and West will have positioned himself well. If Abbott delivers during the special session then Abbott will be golden. It doesn’t matter if he was milk toasty with CV lock downs or was pushed into his other positions or not as long as he ends up delivering, then he’ll likely will fight off any challengers to include West or Paxton whose been decidedly more right leaning then Abbott.
Currently the Texas Legislature will be recalled sometime this fall and Abbott is expected to set his agenda for that recall in the next few weeks. Election Integrity reform he says will be on the agenda. Redrawing districts is another expected to be on the agenda along with bail reform. Other things have yet to be mentioned but Paxton has already called for the trans school issue to be part of it. Permit less carry has already been signed and will be implemented on 1 Sept. The new border wall funding program along with his allowing counties to start arresting illegals for tresspass likely will be judge on their effectiveness. If they have teeth he’ll do fine, no teeth like with this recent vaccine push back thing and he could have trouble
If they have teeth . . . always the problem.
Established as a national holiday for PC reasons.
It’s not an unworthy choice, though.
And this turns it around and throws it right back in their faces!!!
Naming it something other than Independence Day would have avoided much of the controversy with this new Holiday. Emancipation day would of worked just fine for most all Americans even though it’s still pandering.
The loss of productivity no one is talking about, but everyone will be paying for it as workers will be mandated a paid holiday. I know in Texas it’s big deal to be a fujl time employee, as they are paid for holidays. But many business, big and small get around that by carrying you as a part time employee for whom they do not have to pay for the holiday and many employees work 40 hours a week for periods longer than a year and still are termed as part time until the magic slot opens up and they are told they are full time.
As far as throwing it back in their face, that’s good (and the charges are true too) as long as you can make it stick. MSM does a good job though of keeping their darlings hosed off though.
I believe the “cube-tent”-like things in the lower photo are portable old-fashioned “bathing huts” (changing rooms from street garb into beach garb and vice versa).
Carbis Bay, once a tin mining area, dwindled down to about 45 residents in the 1890’s. It then remade itself into a seaside resort and scenery magnet in its district (Penzance).
If would appear that if the G-7 idiots have their way and further reduce the current sea level in Carbis Bay, Poof! goes the seaside resort.
Yeah, I’m looking at the buildings that are gone. They’d be nearly 100 years old at this point and the construction couldn’t have been expected to last that long. Still, it gives me the sense that the intent is a replacement, as in, getting rid of annoying things that the elite don’t like or that are in their way. You know, things that are charming and useful but that they deem ugly and unattractive.
Like us… 😡
Darn. One mini-Tsunami just then to scrub the beach and Europe would be a better place…
Then again, the ocean would spit them back out, just like it would were SF or LA to sink into the ocean…
Let’s go for the gusto, LA *and* SF.
AND logic, as our host would say…
Pierre Gosselin at NoTricksZone has a number of sea-level (and many other) papers here: https://notrickszone.com/category/sea-levels
One interesting article is this one, which says that sea level rise is only 1.69mm per year, at the coasts, and (according to Willis Eschenbach) only 1.52mm per year. https://notrickszone.com/2021/03/23/were-not-gonna-drown-analysis-shows-coastal-sea-level-rise-is-only-1-62-mm-per-year
Statistician/scientist Zoe Phin has also analyzed sea level data here: https://phzoe.com/2021/03/19/coastal-sealevel-rise and debunks a lot of Climastrology elsewhere on her site.
Being that we’re coming up from the “little ice ages” and toward the end of an interglacial, we should be having a good look at how we’ll deal with DROPPING SEA LEVELS and encroaching, growing glaciers (not to mention terrible cold with even more terrible energy prices – thanks (not) to Greta the GreenGrabber…
(I think Gail wrote at length about the coming ice age sometime last week)…
That’ll be their next target.
Chicom flu brings the reset, next onslaught will be global warming BS, 24/7/365.
Cue the “experts, scientists, professors, computer models”.
It used to be lawyers who topped the list of scum.
Where’s the bacon?
On the griddle, lower left.
Bacon belongs on top, but maybe it’s some sort of “Maslow’s Munchies” diagram.
Then again, why in tarnation use a griddle on a BBQ????? (OK, for bacon or small stuff, I can see it, but for wurst and hot dogs?)…
If it were in the morning, I’d say it would be going from bed to wurst…
..What ?! .. and here I always thought a cold beer was a universally accepted food group everywhere ? 😫
Glad to see Kevin McCarthy’s name in a post above.
More on that snake….
Look at his purple tie that tells you everything who he is.
McCarthy speaks only of Pence’s resume, which doesn’t address Pence being a traitor.
Florida Braces For Another Saharan Dust Storm
Tyler Durden’s Photo
BY TYLER DURDEN
SATURDAY, JUN 19, 2021 – 09:55 AM
Ten days ago, NASA’s satellite spotted a massive dust storm blowing off the Sahara Desert and into the waters of the Atlantic Basin. At the time, we forecasted dust clouds were “headed for the Americas.”
Fast forward today, millions of tons of Sahara’s nutrient-laden minerals have been whisked across the Atlantic Ocean and are set to arrive in South Florida on Friday or Saturday.
Satellite footage shows the airborne dust particles have already blanketed parts of the Caribbean.
Florida is already being hit by a tropical storm. The air is going to be very humid.
On Jan 5th, the night before the infamous Jan 6th Capital Event, this Fed was caught on camera encouraging the crowd to raid the capital on the next day.
The crowd yells NO! We can’t do that and he insists that everyone raids the capital.
Who is Ray Epps?
What the Hell!
EU founding father Robert Schuman moves a step closer to sainthood.
Pope Francis gives ‘venerable’ status to post-war French statesman and supporter of European unity
Call me when the give Archbishop Fulton Sheen the time of day. Until then, this regime is pushing wacko stuff.
No doubt there are varying opinions on this.
Tim Cook says Android has 47 times more malware than iOS because of sideloading
ANYTHING proposed by the EC is not in the interests of the people, the end users, the “proletariat”.
And, if the (unelected, self-perpetuating) EC proposes it, the EP (European Parliament, elected but in truth, powerless) will rubber-stamp it, and it will become law.
The EC is a thinly-veiled dictatorship, existing only for the benefit of the elite…
‘Elf ears’ are the creepy new plastic surgery trend in China (but it’s not pointy ears)
(h/t Populist Press https://populist.press)
Risk factors (but hey, no one cares that vaccines could maim or kill you, so why not?):
Example photo below. Of course, she is smiling more in the “after” pic.
For those who think the Left uses news about dogs to communicate:
Biden family dog Champ dies at 13
Hmmm. 13 IS a special number to them…
New Political Moonshine:
Save the Bluster Over Conspiracy Theories, COVID-19 Is Demonstrably Fraudulent by Admissibility Standards in a Court of Law
June 19, 2021
Intro: “In September 2020, we latched onto Dr. Li-Meng Yan, an internal whistleblower who had defected from China and the Wuhan Institute of Virology vis-a-vis Hong Kong. You may remember that Dr. Yan mysteriously made the rounds on social media appearing in cryptic photographs alongside Steve Bannon, Rudy Giuliani and Patrick Ho.
We’ve previously covered Yan’s and Ho’s involvement deeply and extensively. That’s Bannon over Rudy’s right shoulder, Ho on his left and Yan in the mirror; and that opportunistic photograph is no accident and no coincidence while also being potentially devastating to the Chinese proxy Biden administration when we consider the collective body of knowledge therein.”
DHS has announced that pills to treat COVID are in development.
But PDJT was lambasted for mentioning proven therapeutics. The 🐘in the room: hydroxychloroquine is a pill that we already have. It is not mentioned once in the entire article.
It doesn’t say how much the pills could cost, but could “follow the money” be any more blatantly communicated?
After the vaccine debacle, the government’s wanting to regulate proven non-prescription supplements, and other missteps, I do not trust any pill they come out with for COVID.
Admittedly, I didn’t read all of the above or click on links.
Seems to me this IS simply lining the pockets of Big Pharma.
AND, we hace HCQ, ZPAK, Ivermectin, vitamins and minerals…
And, right on cue, there is this:
“Highly-contagious Delta variant likely to become dominant in US, CDC director says. Latest COVD-19 updates”
Down and Dirty Summary of the above:
The so-called “Delta” variant of the CCP”Fauci-Mengele” virus, “discovered” in India, is starting to spread in the United States. The variant is apparently highly contagious. It poses a threat even to “fully-vaccinated” people; but it poses a very high threat to UN-“vaccinated” people.
Both the head of the CDC, Dr. Rochelle Walensky, and Dr. Rachel Levine, the Assistant Secretary of the U.S. Department of Health, state that even though the Delta variant poses a threat, “fully-vaccinated” people have a better chance of avoiding it, and avoiding a severe case if infected.
Drs. Walensky, Levine, and “President” Joe Biden all state that the current “vaccines” that are available are “safe” and “effective”.
“President” Biden also states that the Delta variant is “more easily transmissible, potentially deadlier, and particularly dangerous for young people.”
My take: There may well be a new variant of the CCP”Fauci-Mengele” virus that was released by the Communist Chinese into INDIA a few months ago. India is a strategic prize to Dictator Xi if he can get his hands on her. Within the last year, the PLA has infiltrated Indian territory several times in disputed border areas. Border tensions in the disputed areas between India and Communist Chinese vassal states have increased. It would not be beyond the realm of reason to posit that Dictator Xi, to “turn up the heat” if you will, could release a COVID-19 variant into India.
Also: The variant is being used as a vehicle here in the U.S. by top federal government officials to incite fear among the populace; to push for universal “vaccination”, including among persons under age 18; and to lay the groundwork for the future blame for any “second plague” of Delta variant infections squarely on those who refuse to get “vaccinated”.
Bonus points for the DeepState: The threat of the “highly-contagious” Delta variant spreading rapidly in the United States will be used by the FDA to accelerate “full approval” of at least one of the “vaccines” currently under EUA protocols. There will also be a hard push for “universal vaccination”, with “vax resisters” literally being singled out.
Why would ANYONE in their right mind trust ANYTHING about health, illnesses, cures, whatever, from someone who can’t even tell that he’s a man?????
We don’t believe ANYTHING “officials” say about Covid, injections…
What about the group they always leave out: those who have recovered from COVID?
How to capture a demographic that had very little to fear from COVID. How to scare parents into making kids wear masks and even closing schools, which leads to shutting down the economy again.
“It poses a threat even to “fully-vaccinated” people; but it poses a very high threat to UN-“vaccinated” people.”
Watch what the official figures hide regarding jabbed people versus non jabbed.
Two examples given in the first ten minutes of this video.
“It poses a threat even to “fully-vaccinated” people; but it poses a very high threat to UN-“vaccinated” people.”
^^^ Huh what?
Every other day we read those that had Covid have natural immunity.
Sometimes it is immunity for three months, six months, forever…
They really need to get their lies straight.
The “particularly dangerous for young people” stuff is CRAP.
Refuse. This SICK industry “payday science” deserves PRISON.
As has been noted, the “danger” narrative has shifted from old farts with an eye on the future. Target future generation via the young fertile ones these days. In a few months, they’ll want to start injecting those under 12.
Has anyone noticed the government is not worried about the illegals who have come to the US? How many are now in about one million plus those they did not registered. I do not hear they get a jab they get send into the middle of America. The kids will sit with our kids in school.
“It poses a threat even to “fully-vaccinated” people; but it poses a very high threat to UN-“vaccinated” people.”
I never trusted vaccinations given by the U.N… 😁
I’m so slowwwww, I thought they said these virus things get weaker over time.. Yeah, pretty sure Fauci said that more than just once. So what changed? Oh wait.. that’s natural virus’s… not lab bat virus’s? Or is it just the blatant disregard for their BS followed by their continuous instance that we submit to the vaccine and all the silly mandates.
My best guess is that the aliens really don’t want to come. There scared! 😜
Oh look.. more Delta Variant here…
Sure hope they aren’t planning on going through the whole alphabet…