Joe Biteme, properly styled His Fraudulency, continues to infest the White House, we haven’t heard much from the person who should have been declared the victor, and hopium is still being dispensed even as our military appears to have joined the political establishment in knuckling under to the fraud.
One can hope that all is not as it seems.
I’d love to feast on that crow.
Justice Must Be Done.
The prior election must be acknowledged as fraudulent, and steps must be taken to prosecute the fraudsters and restore integrity to the system.
Nothing else matters at this point. Talking about trying again in 2022 or 2024 is hopeless otherwise. Which is not to say one must never talk about this, but rather that one must account for this in ones planning; if fixing the fraud is not part of the plan, you have no plan.
Lawyer Appeasement Section
OK now for the fine print.
This is the WQTH Daily Thread. You know the drill. There’s no Poltical correctness, but civility is a requirement. There are Important Guidelines, here, with an addendum on 20191110.
We have a new board – called The U Tree – where people can take each other to the woodshed without fear of censorship or moderation.
And remember Wheatie’s Rules:
1. No food fights
2. No running with scissors.
3. If you bring snacks, bring enough for everyone.
4. Zeroth rule of gun safety: Don’t let the government get your guns.
5. Rule one of gun safety: The gun is always loaded.
5a. If you actually want the gun to be loaded, like because you’re checking out a bump in the night, then it’s empty.
6. Rule two of gun safety: Never point the gun at anything you’re not willing to destroy.
7. Rule three: Keep your finger off the trigger until ready to fire.
8. Rule the fourth: Be sure of your target and what is behind it.
(Hmm a few extras seem to have crept in.)
Kitco Ask. Last week:
This week, markets closed as of 3PM MT.
That is a big breakout for gold on the upside. It went up fifty dollars just since Wednesday. Platinum hasn’t done too badly either! It went up over $30 on Wednesday.
(Be advised that if you want to go buy some gold, you will have to pay at least $200 over these spot prices. They represent “paper” gold, not “physical” gold, a lump you can hold in your hand. Incidentally, if you do have a lump of some size, doesn’t it give you a nice warm feeling to heft it?)
Update: More info on Valcambi Combo Bars
Somebody asked me about the Valcambi combo bars for gold, silver and other precious metals. These are the ones that can readily be broken up into smaller pieces. I was at the Denver Coin Expo yesterday/Friday, and asked someone who had Valcambi bullion at his table if the bars were worth less broken apart, and he said yes, they are worth less.
Still, it might be worth holding a couple of them (and not breaking them apart) in case there’s a fiat money apocalypse. If that happens, you’ll have bigger problems than worrying about how much fiat you’ll get for a 1 gram bar as opposed to the full, 20 (or more) block chocolate bar, and it might be a good way to subdivide your gold holdings when you absolutely need to. Or, you can use silver for “small” change…but even there, it might make sense someday to be able to break down an ounce of silver.
Velocity and Momentum
(Part II of a Long Series)
The general outline of this story is to start off by putting you “in touch” with the state of physics at the beginning of 1895. Physicists were feeling pretty confident that they understood most everything. Sure there were a few loose ends, but they were just loose ends.
1895 marks the year when people began tugging at the loose ends and things unraveled a bit. In the next three years, three major discoveries made it plain there was still a lot to learn at the fundamental level.
Once I’m there I will concentrate on a very, very small object…that ties in with stars, arguably the biggest objects there are (galaxies are basically collections of stars). And we would never have seen this but for those discoveries in the 1890s.
It’s such a long story I decided to break it down into pieces, and this is the second of those pieces.
And here is the caveat: I will be explaining, at first, what the scientific consensus was in 1895. So much of what I have to say is out of date, and I know it…but going past it would be a spoiler. So I’d appreciate not being “corrected” in the comments when I say things like “mass is conserved.” I know that that isn’t considered true any more, but the point is in 1895 we didn’t know that. I will get there in due time. (On the other hand, if I do misrepresent the state of understanding as it was in 1895, I do want to know it.)
Also, to avoid getting bogged down in Spockian numbers specified to nine decimal places, I’m going to round a lot of things off. I used 9.8 kg m/s2 last time for a number that’s actually closer to 9.80665, for instance, similarly for the number 32.
A couple of Go Backs
Remembering my previous post on mass, one might wonder, “why bother with this sort of thing? Why should people investigate such things?”
We live in an orderly universe. This is a good thing. It gives us confidence that when we set the groceries on the counter, they won’t jump up and bite us. (Not even Darwin’s live food groceries.) It also means that when we drop a car battery on our feet, we know it!
The point of science, when it is being properly done, is to increase our understanding of this world we are in.
All that work on forces and masses and weight was at its core an exercise in breaking down phenomena we see every day into different effects and studying one of them. We removed friction and gravity from the picture and analyzed what was left. Then we took up gravity. What we didn’t get to was showing that friction is itself a force.
With that kind of understanding, you can predict what will happen in an environment where gravity is different, e.g., on the moon and in orbit. At first you won’t be used to it, but then you do get used to it. There are plenty of stories of astronauts who adapt so well to “microgravity” (i.e., the lack of any sort of sensation of “down”) and free fall that they will come home, put the toothpaste on the toothbrush, and drop the toothpaste tube, because they’re used to just letting it go and having it stay there until they’re ready to put things away. They’re applying Newton’s first law (objects at rest will stay at rest) since it is pretty much unmodified in orbit, no need to worry about gravity pulling things to the floor.
Another Go Back. Last time I rather casually used the concept of acceleration, without really going into it much. I assumed some knowledge that many might not have.
You can think of acceleration as change in speed, the faster the change, the greater the acceleration. And it can be a decrease as well as an increase; to a physicist it’s still an acceleration, albeit one which is in the reverse direction to the motion.
I know, too, I said things like “meters per second per second” a lot. That wasn’t a stammer. That’s truly how you measure acceleration. Think about a sports car, able to go from zero to 60 miles an hour in four seconds. That means, on average, every second of that four seconds, the car’s speed increases by 15 miles per hour. So it accelerates at 15 miles per hour every second, which is to say at 15 miles per hour per second. That can even be written as 15 miles / hour / second (the “per” functioning as a division). Or even, 15 miles • 1/hour • 1/sec.
Yes, when physicists do math, they will multiply and divide by units, not just the numbers. They can be divided and multiplied, and even follow the rules of cancelation. (Chemists often have to convert from one unit to another, like calories to Joules, so they really do this sort of thing a lot.)
Notice there are two time units (hours and seconds) in the denominator. It’s kind of funny that they don’t match. You could convert the hours into seconds, like this: Use the fact that there are 3600 seconds in an hour and do the following: 15 miles • 1/hour • 1/sec • 1 hour/3600 sec.
That last term is simply 1 hour divided by 3600 seconds, which is 1. You can multiply by 1 without changing anything. But now that it’s there, the two hours, one in the numerator and the other in the denominator, cancel
Do that cancellation and you have 15 miles • 1/hour • 1/sec • 1 hour/3600sec, and you can re-arrange to get 15/3600 • miles/sec/sec or 1/240 miles per second per second or 0.004167 miles / sec2. You could then move on to convert miles to meters (1609 meters is one mile, roughly), and that works out to be 6.7 m/s2, and it turns out that car is accelerating about 2/3 as much as gravity accelerates a falling object.
You may have noticed I seem to prefer metric, and that’s because just about every bit of my technical education was in metric; I’m used to it. When I got exposed to the occasional rocketry done in pounds force and pounds mass, it was like trying to use stone knives and bearskins (and you needed to know when you had to multiply or divide by that 32). Obviously it works (we put men on the moon after all), but it just seems cumbersome to me.
(And a note for the fussy, you’ll notice I’ve sometimes spelled out a unit, e.g., “second” and sometimes abbreviate it “sec” or “s.” That last one, just a plain s, is the “official” metric abbreviation for second. Likewise meters, m, and kilograms, kg. But sometimes I spell things out too, as a reminder.)
But the notion of acceleration (however you measure it) is itself depends on speed…actually, it is dependent on velocity.
So my second “go back” actually leads us into today’s topics. Let’s flesh out velocity.
Velocity is both how fast something is moving, and in what direction. So it’s actually a more complex concept than the one we talked about last time, mass. The distinction between mass and weight was probably odd to many, but at least mass can be expressed as a number. Velocity? You need a number (your speed), and a direction. (Or maybe you can get by with a bit less…stay with me.)
Direction is easy on a straight highway. You’re either going forward or backward. Since there’s only two choices, and they are opposite of each other, it’s natural to consider the forward direction positive and the backward direction negative. So driving 60 mph in fourth gear is +60 mi/hr, but switching to reverse (after first stopping, since we don’t want your engine to leap through your hood in an ugly mess), and going fairly fast in reverse might get you -10 mi/hr. The local constabulary, using a radar gun, will measure your speed and may depending on circumstances pull you over to inform you how fast you were going and how much you will have to pay for that.
You can even add and subtract your velocities, just like you do with masses. The usual example here is a railroad car moving along on tracks, also nice and tidy and one-dimensional. If the train is moving at 60 mi/hr and a pitcher is in a cattle car, playing catch with someone, and he throws the ball forward at 60 mi/hr, someone standing on the side of the tracks will see the ball moving at 120 mi/hr, because the speed of the train and the ball add together. If he and the catcher switch places, he’s now throwing the ball at -60 mi/hr and the ball is now stationary as far as the guy by the side of the tracks is concerned: +60 mi/hr plus -60 mi/hr = zero.
OK, I’ve used a very limited situation to make a couple of points, but it’s not very interesting in the real world. What about two or even three dimensions?
I’m going to do what everyone else does when explaining velocity in two dimensions: I’m going to use a pool table as my example. It’s the best choice I can think of, and I guess that was the best they could come up with too.
Let’s say the pool table points north-south along its length. A ball is moving directly north at 1 m/s. Another ball is moving directly east at 1 m/s. They have the same speed, but different velocities, because the direction of motion is different.
Now let’s consider a different ball, a red one moving at 1 m/s exactly to the north east. If you think about it, that ball is moving north at a certain rate, and at the same time it’s moving east at a certain rate. Or to put it another way, how fast would a ball (let’s make this one pale blue) moving straight east have to move so that it’s always directly south of the diagonally-moving ball? And how fast would a (purple this time) ball moving straight north have to move so that it’s always directly west of the diagonally-moving ball?
You can do this visually by drawing a diagram like this, then measuring the vertical and horizontal lines. You should get about .7 the length of the diagonal line. Since that diagonal line is 1 m/s, the horizontal and vertical lines should be .7 m/s. (The exact number is actually 1, divided by the square root of 2. That can be derived from the Pythagorean Theorem. To six places, it’s 0.707107, but you will never be able to measure quite that accurately off a drawing you made on a piece of paper.)
You can do this with any velocity, big or small, in any direction. You can break it down into a north-south component and an east-west component.
So any velocity on the pool table can be expressed with numbers, but by writing two numbers, not one. Our diagonal moving ball has a velocity of [ 0.707 north, 0.707 east ] meters per second.
That pair of numbers is enough to do the job of a speed and a direction.
And this is what is called a vector in its mathematical form.
You can also represent a vector by picking a scale (1 inch equals 1 m/sec, for instance), and drawing an arrow with the appropriate length, pointed in the appropriate direction. We’ve already done that. You can’t compute things this way but it sure does help you visualize it. And you can get estimates by measuring off the diagram if you’re careful drawing it.
Vectors are considered equal if they have the same length (mathematicians call this the “magnitude” of the vector) and the same direction. There’s no notion built into a vector of “where it starts” and “where it ends.” We can move them around for convenience, especially on those diagrams, just so long as we don’t stretch them or rotate them.
If you think back to last time, I talked about force, mass and acceleration. F = ma. But it turns out the force is a vector. When you push on something, you’re pushing in a certain direction. Likewise, acceleration is a vector too, you’re speeding up in a certain direction. It’s customary to write vectors in bold face (or if on a blackboard, by drawing a line with a little arrowhead over the letter). So it’s actually F = ma.
Mass was not written in bold, because it takes a single number to express it; it doesn’t have direction. (Weight does. Why?) Such plain-old-number quantities are called scalars in distinction to vectors.
Returning to our current topic, velocity is abbreviated v, bold because it’s a vector. So in our diagonally moving ball example, v = [ 0.707 north, 0.707 east ] m/s.
When you take a vector and express it like this, you’ve broken it down into its north and east components. It actually doesn’t matter which two directions you use, so long as they’re perpendicular, but for now let’s stick with north and east.
Even a total distance moved can be a vector. The total distance is equal to the elapsed time, t, times the speed or velocity (depending on whether you want just the distance, or the distance and direction). d = vt.
What happens when you multiply a vector by a scalar, as shown here? What you do on a diagram, is make the arrow that much longer or shorter. Mathematically, you go to each component of the vector and multiply each one by the scalar. In the case of the diagonal moving ball, you have:
d = 5s [0.707, 0.707]m/s = [3.535, 3.535]m. This is how far the ball has gone, relative to where you first started watching it five seconds before. (And it would go right off the pool table, too, if not for the bumpers. More on that later.)
Mathematicians like to do things as generically as possible. So they will write vectors in terms of x and y, rather than north and south. That means they’re not really wedded to any particular orientation. Remember I said it didn’t matter which directions you used, so long as they were at right angles to each other. For convenience when they draw diagrams, the x direction is to the right, and the y direction is upward, the y axis being 90 degrees counterclockwise from the x axis.
You can do more to vectors than just multiply them by a scalar. They can be added together, provided they’re in the same units. (No fair adding speed to force!) This also means they can be subtracted.
Of course when dealing with pure mathematics (as opposed to mathematics applied to physics), generally units are not a concern. Like in the following example.
On a diagram, take your first vector, whatever it is, and then put your second vector so that its tail is right at the head of the first vector. Then draw a new vector from the tail of the first vector to the head of the second vector. That’s the sum of the two vectors. Mathematically, you add each individual element. So [ 3, 4 ] + [ -1, 6 ] = [ 3-1, 4+6 ] = [2, 10].
Conservation of Velocity?
So now let’s go back to the pool table, make the scenario slightly more complicated and see what we can use this whiz-bang vector thing to figure out.
This is pool, after all, balls are supposed to hit other balls. So, if we have a cue ball moving along in the x direction at, say, 1 m/s…or more rigorously [ 1.0, 0.0 ] m/s, and it hits another billiard ball head on, what happens? Well, the cue ball hits the other ball. Then the cue ball stops, and the second ball continues on along the x direction, also at 1 meters per second.
It’s as if the velocity transferred from the cue ball to the other ball, perfectly. So, is it possible we’re on the track of another conservation law, conservation of velocity?
Let’s do a little more investigation. For starters, consider a glancing blow. Let’s have the cue ball moving at 1 m/s in the x direction (ahem) v = [1.0, 0] m/s, and hit the other ball quite a bit off from head on, as shown below.
You’ve seen this happen often enough, you know the cue ball will, in this case, continue moving, up and to the right. And the second ball will move down and to the right. And perhaps one of the two balls moves at a steeper angle than the other. That doesn’t look very much like velocity was conserved, does it? A motion in the x direction turns into two sort-of-diagonal motions?
But actually, when you look at it a bit closer, it looks good. As you can see, we’ve broken the two vectors into their x and y components.
We started with the cue ball moving at [1, 0]m/s, and the other ball (not) moving at [0, 0]m/s. Afterwards, the cue ball is moving at [0.750, 0.433]m/s and the other ball is moving at [0.250, -0.433]m/s.
If velocity is conserved, the sum of the velocities before must equal the sum of the velocities afterwards. These are vectors, and I already told you how to add vectors. So let’s do some addition:
Before: Cue ball [1, 0]m/s + Other ball [0, 0]m/s = [1, 0]m/s.
After: [0.750, 0.433]m/sec + [0.250, -0.433] = [1, 0] m/s.
So it does look like velocity is conserved. Yes, here I could have just made up the numbers to make it work out, but the fact of the matter is in real life, these billiard ball examples really do work out like this.
(And, since I did contrive this scenario, the direction of the cue ball is 30 degrees “up” from the x axis, and its speed is 0.866 m/s. The other ball is moving “down” at a 60 degree angle, at a speed of 0.5 m/s. Those who took some trigonometry might remember there’s something special about 30 and 60 degree angles and the square root of 3, divided by 2.)
A pool player will have played so many games of pool that he knows this behavior in his gut; he knows exactly where to hit the other ball with the cue ball to get the angle he wants, to send that other ball into the corner pocket.
But if it’s a conservation law, it has to hold all of the time, not just in billiards scenarios. And this one doesn’t hold all of the time in billiards, much less in the “real world.”
Nope, No Conservation of Velocity
What happens when a ball hits the bumper? If it hits the bumper head on at 1 m/s, it bounces back at 1 m/s, in the opposite direction. In other words, whatever the vector was before, it’s now a vector in the opposite direction. That’s not conservation!! (And the pool player knows this one too, of course.)
Also, not quite within the realm of billiards, what if the balls are of different weights…er, masses? You already know from your own personal life what will happen. Hit a pool ball with a cannonball and the pool ball will go rocketing away, much faster than the cannonball was moving, and the cannon ball will slow down the tiniest but not stop moving. Reverse the process, hitting the cannonball with the cue ball, and it will barely budge, but the cue ball will bounce back the way it came.
If you want to mess with a pool player, randomize the masses of the balls. Because normally all of the balls have exactly the same mass, at least as close as the manufacturer can make it. In real life very few objects have the same masses. As soon as the masses are different the tidy behavior we illustrated above goes right out the window and the player can’t predict what will happen.
So if you do some experimenting, it seems like what might be getting conserved is not velocity, but something that is the product of mass times velocity. You have to add the mass times velocity, before and after, and that will be conserved. A heavy object will move less under the same impetus from some other object, than a light one would. If mass goes up, velocity goes down to compensate, and vice versa.
That product of mass times velocity is known as momentum. And it’s a scalar times a vector, so it’s a vector, too. And for some reason, they chose to symbolize it with p. (They didn’t use m because m is mass, but why did they pick p instead of q or u or…?). p = mv. And if m is in kilograms, and velocity is in meters per second, we can define the momentum as being in kilogram meters per second, kg•m/sec. That way we can avoid the use of a fudge factor, since the units are already consistent with each other. There is, unfortunately, no named unit of momentum like there is with force (the Newton), so “kilogram meter per second” it is.
OK, that takes care of the unequal masses behaving oddly, but what about a ball rebounding off one of the bumpers?
Actually, what’s happening there is that the ball is striking a much more massive object–the pool table. And the pool table is firmly fixed to the entire planet, if nothing else by friction.
So the entire Earth, it turns out, is reacting to that ball hitting the bumper, and picking up motion in that direction, but the earth is so massive that the motion is very, very small. In fact, in order to make the ball rebound, the momentum of the ball is changing by twice its prior value. If the mass of the ball is b, and it was moving at 1 m/s in the x direction before, its momentum was [ b, 0 ]kg•m/s before, and afterwards its moving in the opposite direction with a momentum of [ -b, 0 ]kg•m/s. Net change in momentum is [ -2b, 0 ]kg•m/s. The earth has to make up this change by gaining [ 2b, 0] kg•m/s. But the earth’s mass is much, much, much more than b, so the velocity imparted by the ball to the earth is microscopic. If one goes up the other has to come down to compensate.
One could complain that since we can’t measure the earth’s “rebound” in this case, maybe it isn’t rebounding. But the absence of evidence (i.e., the failure to be able to measure it) isn’t the same as the evidence of absence (i.e., evidence the earth doesn’t actually rebound when the ball hits the bumper). If we had a way of measuring the earth’s rebound that was sensitive enough to show what we expect based on theory, and it didn’t show that change, then we’d have evidence that momentum isn’t conserved. But if we know our measuring is inaccurate enough that we can’t see it even if it’s there, then not seeing it doesn’t mean anything, one way or the other.
Conservation of Momentum
Since this is a part of the story of where physics was in 1895, I’ll put it out, here, that as of that time, no exception was known. Every time we could measure things, momentum was conserved. It was considered a solid part of physics.
Because a vector consists of two components, and the addition rules keep the two components separately, you could treat the conservation of momentum as if it were two separate laws, conservation of momentum in the x direction, and conservation of momentum in the y direction. No one actually does this, but from a bookkeeping standpoint it’s definitely twice as much time with the ledger as conservation of mass is.
And, Oh By The Way…vectors can be three dimensional, too! It’s then a triple number, and the new axis is the z axis, perpendicular to both the x and y axes. The three edges of a cube that meet at the corner are a good representation of this.
Rockets and Guns
Now for an application. How does a rocket work? It works entirely through momentum. Let’s say the rocket’s mass is a thousand kilograms (one metric ton or “tonne”), including the fuel it has on board. And let’s furthermore imagine that it’s out in space somewhere.
A rocket engine works by shooting matter–burnt rocket fuel, to be specific–out the nozzle at very high velocity.
So if the rocket burns one kilogram of fuel plus oxidizer, and shoots the combustion product out the nozzle at 4000 m/s, what happens?
Let’s do this in one dimension for simplicity. The direction the rocket is pointed is positive. And we’re moving along with it, so it looks stationary to us. The rocket, including the fuel, has a momentum of zero.
The momentum of the rocket fuel after it has been burned is 1kg • -4000m/sec. (Negative because the rocket is blowing the exhaust out behind it, the nose points in the positive direction, the nozzle points in the negative direction.
If momentum is conserved, the rocket must now also have a momentumm, this time of +4000 kg•m/s. The rocket has a mass of 1000 kg, so that works out to the rocket now moving at 4 m/s in the forward direction.
So if we want another 4 m/s, burn another kilogram of fuel and oxidizer, right?
Good logic, but there’s a complication here. Because the rocket burned 1 kg of its own mass to get to this point, and now it masses 999 kg, So another kilogram of fuel, adding 2000 kg•m/s to the rocket’s momentum, will actually add slighly more than 4 m/s, precisely 4000/999 m/s, in fact.
For that matter, if you think about it, the mass of the rocket was declining while we did that first burn, so we must have gained a tiny bit more than 4 m/s even the first time around.
That’s quite true, actually, and the real formula for how much velocity a rocket gains by burning some amount of fuel is a bit more complex. But the takeaway is that even in following the other formula, the rocket and its burnt fuel are abiding by the conservation of momentum; in fact it relies on it to operate.
(If you’ve ever heard astronauts, or NASA types, talking about “delta vee”, that’s a reference to the total change in velocity given how much fuel is left, or alternatively, they’re talking about the total change in velocity for a specific maneuver, because that will be equivalent to a cost in fuel for that rocket, with its current mass.)
How about firing a gun? It’s sort of the flip side of a rocket. With a rocket the goal is to make the big thing move, and flinging the fuel out as fast as possible is a means to that end. With a gun, the goal is to make the little thing (the bullet) move, and the gun kicking in the opposite direction is the price paid.
Why does the muzzle flip up on a handgun? Shouldn’t it go straight back, instead of up? It would, except that the line of the barrel does not go through the gun’s center of mass, so there’s a bit of torque there, that causes the whole gun to rotate. If you grip it solidly enough, it kicks your arm up too. Tense up your arm and the entire weight of your body resists the torque and you don’t move much. (Torque, by the way, is another concept that beginning physics studies…)
These particular scenarios are also vivid illustrations of Newton’s third law: for every action, there is an equal but opposite reaction.
This is actually just another way of stating the conservation of momentum. And the first person to put forward the observation that momentum seemed to be conserved was John Wallis in 1671. Newton put forward his three laws in 1687.
OK, here’s another application of stuff we’ve learned today. You have two identical cannonballs. You drop one. (Hopefully not on your foot.) At the same instant, the other is fired out of a cannon, perfectly horizontally. (Hopefully at a deserving target.) Oh, and you do your drop at the same height as the cannon’s muzzle.
If you’re on perfectly flat ground, which cannonball hits the ground first?
They hit at the same time.
Look at it from a vector standpoint. X is the direction the cannon fires. Y is straight up.
The dropped cannonball starts the experiment with v=[0,0]m/s. The fired cannonball, on the other hand, starts out with v=[200, 0]m/s. I just made that x number up; it doesn’t matter what it is as you’ll see in a moment. (Well, you’ll see it if if I did my job right, today.)
The force of gravity imparts an acceleration of –9.8 m/s2 in the y direction, i.e., straight down.
This acceleration can only affect the y component of the velocity vectors, since it’s purely in that direction. And in the y direction, both cannonballs are stationary and in the same place when the experiment starts.
Thus, they both have the same fall, and they will both hit at the same time. It doesn’t matter how fast one of them is moving sideways! And in fact they don’t even need to be the same weight.
I’ve seen demos of this principle done where steel ball bearings are used, in a special little gizmo that drops one the same time a spring shoots the other one out horizontally. You only hear one clack as both balls hit at the same time.
Can’t get the drift.
Last time around, I highlighted what was, in 1895, a standing mystery. Gravitation seemed to work, except they couldn’t figure out what was going on with Mercury’s orbit about the sun. A similar problem with Uranus had led to the discovery of Neptune, so it seemed as if there must be some planet closer to the sun than Mercury, lost in the Sun’s glare, perturbing its orbit. Despite the best efforts of astronomers, that planet (already pre-named Vulcan) had never been found.
This time I’m going to highlight a different little issue.
I mentioned before that velocities were additive, right? A ball thrown by a pitcher on board a moving train ends up moving, relative to the outside observer, faster or slower than the pitcher threw it, by the speed of the train, depending on the direction of the throw.
Can we do this with other things? Sound, for instance, travels at a specific speed (one which varies depending on temperature, humidity, pressure, whether His Fraudulency is on or off his meds, and a host of other factors, but still, a speed that will remain constant until one of these factors changes). Trains have a nice source of sound on them, the whistle (or today the horn). So how fast is the sound travelling in front of the train, and how fast is it travelling behind the train? Measurements from the ground show that they are travelling at the same speed, not different speeds. (They also show that in front of the train the pitch is higher, but that effect is a different rabbit hole. Some other time, perhaps. No, some other time, definitely.) What’s going on here?
It turns out that sound is a wave that travels through a medium, air. It’s going to move at a certain speed relative to the air.
The train is moving, the air is not (unless it’s Wyoming). Thus the sound wave travels the same speed in all direction from the train’s whistle (horn), as seen from someone on the ground on a breezeless day. If some bored passenger on the train were to measure the speed of sound (assuming they’d let him climb around on top of the train in the first place), he’d see the sound move slower, relative to the train, when measured from in front of the whistle, at a normal speed to the side of the whistle, and faster behind the whistle. He could even figure out how fast the train was going by taking the difference between his “in back of” reading and his “in front of” reading and dividing by two. If he were really ignorant of how trains move, he could even prove it wasn’t moving sideways, but rather forward, this way.
Looking at light, we had originally thought it was instantaneous, it was so doggone fast. But then…well, remember Jupiter’s moons from last time? We could predict their motions once we knew Newton’s law of gravitation, actually we could do so from Kepler’s laws of planetary motion, known earlier. (We didn’t even really need to know the mass or distance to Jupiter to be able to do that.) Well, there was one little anomaly. We could predict the motions all right, but the motions were about eight minutes and twenty seconds early when we were closest to Jupiter, and eight minutes and twenty seconds late when we were farthest from Jupiter.
A little thought and someone realized, that the difference was due to the speed of light not being infinite. What we see now going on around Jupiter actually happened at some time in the past, when the light left Jupiter. It then took some amount of time for the light to get here.
The eight minutes and twenty seconds, really in total a 16 minutes and 40 seconds difference, reflect the amount of time it took light to span the entire width of the earth’s orbit about the sun, because it has to cover that much additional distance when we are farther away, versus closer, to Jupiter. (This works out to about a thousand seconds, by the way, a neat coincidence.)
We didn’t know how big the earth’s orbit was, and wouldn’t until the 1760s. Before that we just knew however big it was, light took a thousand seconds to cross it, you could even call it a distance of one thousand light seconds. But once we discovered that the earth’s orbital diameter is roughly 300,000,000 kilometers, we now knew light moved at about 300,000 kilometers per second (186,000 miles per second). This was another product of all that work measuring the solar system that I totally forgot about when writing that article (which is OK, because it fits better here anyway).
Light was, and is, believed to be a wave. So, presumably it goes through a medium, just like sound does. But it must be an otherwise intangible medium, or planet earth would be suffering drag plowing through it. Only light could “feel” that medium. We knew it had to be there, and so we gave it a name: It was the ether.
We might not be able to feel the ether, but we sure as heck ought to be able to measure the Earth’s velocity through it, the same way as the man on the train: by measuring the speed of light in different directions here on Earth.
Measuring the speed of light in a laboratory was difficult to do accurately in the mid 1800s, but we could be much more precise by comparing two different beams of light in two different directions, and seeing what the difference in their speed is.
Michelson and Morley tried this in 1887. They found no difference in the speed of light no matter which way they measured.
Well, it’s possible that at that point in our orbit, we just happened to be stationary with respect to the ether. But that couldn’t be true a couple of months later, because the earth would at the very least be orbiting in a different direction, so they kept trying.
Others have tried too, with much better equipment.
No difference. Ever. No one has ever “got the drift.”
What’s going on here? Well, that, like Vulcan, was a mystery as 1895 dawned.
Obligatory PSAs and Reminders
China is Lower than Whale Shit
Remember Hong Kong!!!
Zhōngguò shì gè hùndàn !!!
China is asshoe !!!
China is in the White House
Since Wednesday, January 20 at Noon EST, the bought-and-paid for His Fraudulency Joseph Biden has been in the White House. It’s as good as having China in the Oval Office.
Joe Biden is Asshoe
China is in the White House, because Joe Biden is in the White House, and Joe Biden is identically equal to China. China is Asshoe. Therefore, Joe Biden is Asshoe.
But of course the much more important thing to realize:
Joe Biden Didn’t Win
Qiáo Bài dēng méi yíng !!!
Joe Biden didn’t win !!!
Married 18 years today. Sure will never forget THIS one. A two-fer.
Please keep us posted on your situation! (All flippancy aside, you are well regarded here.)
Proof that my bullshitting skills are still razor sharp.
Thank you for your kind words …
And sympathy for the Mrs.
And felicitations to you both.
She sure needs it right now, doing double-duty as caretaker and housewife.
Do we get a health update?
After tomorrow. It’s getting complicated and I need to collaborate with Sweetpea so I don’t get the details wrong.
Being that you’re pgroup, wouldn’t that be Sweetp?
Happy Anniversary pgroup!
Here’s to you both having another 18 years, or more!
Btw, serendipitously, I came across an anon post earlier this morning which specifically referenced bladder cancer. Here it is, in case it’s of any value to you and the Mrs.:
Are anons familiar with the BCG vaccine? I would generally say that I am an “anti-vaxxer”, but there are one or two vaccines that are not commonly used in the United States that I think may have some benefits if used properly. My hypothesis is that a useful vaccine would not intentionally be used under the auspices of the US “alphabet soup” agencies because healthy people don’t need costly medical and pharmaceutical interventions and because healthy people are more able to resist tyranny.
BCG is one of those intriguing vaccines that might be helpful. It is useful in bladder cancer treatment and has been investigated as a treatment for diabetes.
Now there appears to be a link between getting a BCG vaccine and not developing “COVID-19”.
The linked story is from last year, but is still relevant in my opinion.
Possibly caveat: Since the rollout of various injections (Pfizer, Moderna, etc) I wonder if the immune system damaging effects of these products may reduce any protective effects of prior BCG vaccination.
Oh pgroup, congratulations on your anniversary! Eighteen years with the one you love! That’s really wonderful.
❤ ❤ ❤ ❤ ❤
And, as you’re here, speaking of health updates…..
I’m doing great, coothie! Biopsies negative for cancer, everything else is healed/cured, and even the WuFlu seems to have quit tormenting my lungs!
I wish I could do a happy dance as well as bfly. That is great to hear.
Next, the secret TaeKwonDo forms using a shovel, until you’re in tip-top shape.
And I have to say….you’ve scared me more in the last couple of years than the Fiancee has scared me in 30.
Kinda scared myself. I can’t believe all the medical drama of the last year or so. I’m hoping I’m done with THAT.😊😊😊
Jumping up and down with joy!!!!
😀 👏 💃 💃 💖
So glad to hear it, Syl!
Great to hear you are on the rebound Sylvia.
You can come over here and use my grinder to sharpen your shovel!
Not that you don’t probably have access to one somewhere else, but yaknowwhatImean…
Thanks Steve! How are you doing?
This is all such wonderful news, Sylvia! So happy for you!
All the best and thank GOD that you’re better!
Here’s a Teaberry Shovel, er, Shuffle to celebrate 😀
😁😁😁😁😁👍 Thanks Cuppa!
🤸♀️ 🤸♀️ 🥰 🥰 🤸♀️ 🤸♀️ 💗 💗 🤸♀️ 🤸♀️ 🤩 🤩 🤗 🤗 😘 🥰 🤸♀️ 🤸♀️ 🤩 🤩 🤸♀️ 🤸♀️ 😍 😍 🤸♀️ 🤸♀️ 👄 💃 💃 😍 🤸♀️ 🤸♀️ ❣ ❣ ❣ ❣ ❣ ❣ ❣
💖 🎉 💑 👏 👫 🎉 💖
18 years? Still newlyweds, then.
I’m glad you have each other!
Congrats pg! Prayers for your health situation.
Congratulations! Here’s to 18 more!
Congratulations and all the best! And GOD Bless you and your wife for many, MANY more years and that you recover soon and completely (a family member has been through the same thing, and is chugging along nicely for some time now).
Proverbs 31:10-12 says:
10 Who can find a virtuous woman? for her price is far above rubies.
11 The heart of her husband doth safely trust in her, so that he shall have no need of spoil.
12 She will do him good and not evil all the days of her life.
Hearty congratulations on your wedding anniversary! All best wishes! 🙂
Its just weird that Americans are allowing themselves to be told what to do on such things, to be ruled and controlled in So many areas of life
With note of your paragraph:
“You may have noticed I seem to prefer metric, and that’s because just about every bit of my technical education was in metric; I’m used to it. When I got exposed to the occasional rocketry done in pounds force and pounds mass, it was like trying to use stone knives and bearskins (and you needed to know when you had to multiply or divide by that 32). Obviously it works (we put men on the moon after all), but it just seems cumbersome to me.”
It works until it doesn’t — https://www.wired.com/2010/11/1110mars-climate-observer-report/ .
Yeah, I am very happy that my profs dropped English units like a hot potato after about a week of using both just to make sure students remembered that English units existed.
That’s almost cheating. You should have had measure track laying in furlongs per fortnight against expenditure of pounds and shillings — and provisioning the workers with hogsheads and bushels.
An older draft of the last installment asserted that NASA had lost a spacecraft due to a pounds force / pounds mass confusion. I couldn’t remember which one, though, so I deleted the passage.
Since this is what I vaguely remembered…and it was a pounds-force to newtons issue, not a pounds-force/pounds-mass confusion, I’m glad I deleted it.
Steve, Thanks again for a wonderful Lesson.
We have an online Teacher, one to whom we are already disposed… how nice is That?
We do not even need to go looking for him.
Thanks so much for all you do in explaining potentially difficult subjects.
I heartily concur.
Have been wondering about the velocity of the globalists on their present trajectory. At what point do they reach terminal velocity? 😄
…and either implode, or are otherwise destroyed.
At the rate they are going, WE are in a terminal situation.
“Terminal velocity” of course is a concept that involves air resistance, which at this basic level is neglected! What I have presented would have skydivers, etc., simply go faster and faster without a terminal velocity until they open their chutes or don’t (and go splat!). A good thing terminal velocity exists, or it would take one hell of a parachute to not shred when opened at 1000 mph (rather than ~100).
Steve, we can have a watch party for the flame out? Feeling optimistic today…no timeline, just my species of hopium I suppose.
It was one of the Mars lander missions, which crashed.
One of the contractors for this mission used English units and didn’t convert those units to metric, which is what NASA uses for all its missions.
Do recall reading about the lost spacecraft. Hadn’t realized it was ~22 years ago. 🙂
When NASA Lost a Spacecraft Due to a Metric Math Mistake
Great article with clear examples. Even I managed to track pretty well. Rather sure I can’t pass a test. But I could track the concepts with the colored balls, baseball, bullet, light… Thank you!
I figured the gun example would get everyone’s attention here. 🙂
Bravo for Act II of this science story!
Can we now talk about train whistles in hurricanes?
or perhaps dogwhistles 😉
So Steve, Im going to want to have you teach physics in 8th grade to my son. Im booking early. 😉
A huge compliment.
So, one of those little “college hacks” that get discussed among faculty but generally aren’t known…..
If you’re supposed to take Math 3A, 3B, 3C at the same time that you take Physics 1A, 1B, 1C…..take the Math 3A first, then take Physics 1A with Math 3B and Physics 1B with Math 3C.
Half the difficulty of Physics 1A is dancing around the missing Math that you’re not supposed to have yet. Similarly, half the difficulty of Physics 1B is because you’re not supposed to have completed Math 3B yet. Take the math classes first, and the physics classes turn from difficult into easy.
Of course, as MAGA Mom notes, it’s hard to illustrate the utility of math 3A until you see the problems that Physics 1A throws at you, and it’s easy for a student to get lazy and balky during that “dangling” math course. But it rips through the rest of the year like a hot knife through butter once it gets going.
I agree with this and I saw it in other subjects too.
I watched an economics instructor painfully and at great length describe something to his class. Then he simply said, “Or, if you’ve had calculus, it’s the derivative.” Just in time as I was starting to wonder if he had ever heard of calculus.
And OBTW (for the benefit of others reading this), Newton was one of the two independent inventors of calculus, the other being Leibniz. We usually use the Leibniz notation today.
My mom was a professor of mathematics; my dad has an undergrad in math and two master’s in engineering. My undergrad’s in Business Econ, and I am a CPA.
You are exactly correct in your observation regarding econ.
Microeconomics (which was the actual course subject) has, of course a wonderful mathematical abstract quality to it. (Which made the class dead easy for me–I took it as a “social humanist elective” but the TA was probing once as to whether I’d be interested in changing majors when he saw I was instantly grasping everything.) The problem is there are so many complications in real life [e.g., human orneriness] the models only somewhat hold, it’s probably worse than trying to do climate science starting from “we’re putting more greenhouse gases into the atmosphere FULL STOP.”
Thats good to know. Of course the way math is going in CA, we may mot have options for those higher courses by then.
The absolute best thing you could do, honestly, is pick up Asimov non-fiction on the subject (any of a variety of subjects, in fact). He makes me look obfuscative.
I think I gave some of those to my parents, actually. They found them very helpful!
Plain Jane would have wanted us to take note.
Judith Reisman passed away on April 9th.
Here’s an article about Dr. Reisman just published in PFOX:
The Courageous Woman Who Took on Kinsey, Playboy and Big Porn
By Robert Knight and Regina Griggs
A Woman to Admire
Figured I needed to look up this book “The Kinsey Syndrome”
Well fortune smiles on me, PDF is online:
PJ said: The Kinsey Syndrome. Thanks again.
BTW, Dr. Judith Reisman is involved with the film.
Did a little digging around. Here’s the link to the film (let me know if there’s a problem with it here):
PJ said (here too):
I’ve had this on my iPad bookmarks for a very long time. I had done much study on Kinsey mainly via Dr. Judith Reisman, psych classes and reading, for decades. I didn’t even realize until today that I had bookmarked this video. The documentary is quite thorough.
(There is a short period in the documentary that repeats itself, unless I inadvertently backtracked.)
Subject matter is appalling, however it really shows the acceptance by some to practice child molestation and child sacrifice, and from the time this video was made until now, it is also probable that some segments of people have openly progressed to, not just molestation and sacrifice, but also child cannibalism and demonic abuse in our country, although that is not new to society.
It is a long documentary, 2 but it should open many eyes if people take the time to view. It is long, and unfortunately the last few minutes won’t play for me. Please watch and share before it disappears because of the political climate. Just when you think you’ve learned the crux of the video, it goes into more and more info surrounding the subject matter.
PJ said: Wolfie, I highly recommend people thoroughly peruse the work of Dr. Judith Reisman.
Yeah, I’ll say. . .
Right off the bat, I stumble on this PDF book:
MKULTRA, KINSEY & ROCKEFELLER: Instruments of the New World Order
Oh and here’s one to make your Spidey Sense tingle.
Judith Reisman, adversary of the porn industry, died 10 days after getting COVID vaccine
Mary McAlister, a member of the Reisman Institute’s board of directors, confirmed that Reisman ‘had her second dose of one of the COVID-19 vaccines about 10 days before she died.’
Thu Apr 29, 2021 – 4:29 pm EST
The National Center on Sexual Exploitation Remembers Dr. Judith Reisman
Sandy Rios in the Morning: Remembering Judith Reisman with Robert Knight
[audio src="https://streamer1.afa.net/afr-aod/sandyrios/sr_20210427.mp3" /]
A woman of uncommon courage
Tuesday, April 20, 2021 | Robert Knight – Guest Columnist
Hugh Hefner’s greatest earthly foe has died. Judith Reisman’s lifelong work exposed the truth about the addictive nature of pornography — and for that the smut industry cast her as a careless, right-wing fanatic instead of the persistent, fearless academic that she was.
In Memory of Judith Reisman: Matriarch in the Fight Against Porn
APRIL 16, 2021
The Little Lady Who Brought Down Alfred Kinsey
CPL Action Update: It is with deep sorrow that we announce the passing of our beloved friend Judith Reisman.
Excellent stuff. She was RIGHT.
Since CIA was behind Hefner, clearly CIA was designed to subvert Amereica – but for WHOM?
Yes, she got one of the mRNA spike protein “disease without virus, genetic incorporation injections”.
That spike protein, I will bet money, facilitates the genetic incorporation of its own instructions.
IT’S A HACK.
So, besides the low-level genocidal behavior, it can also be used for political assassinations.
Has anyone run around DC to make sure there are sufficient lampposts???
I just wonder where we’re going to find all the pikes we’re going to need, to put the heads on.
Gotta hang ’em from the lampposts first.
That can be done in sequence. 100 lamposts, 2000 traitorous shitbags, each lamppost is of service 20 times. Perhaps all in one day.
But heads on pikes is a long term thing. You need 2000 pikes.
Tamerlane suggests that you can also stack them in pyramids, for a similar effect.
I know this is considered sacrilegious on the right, but I’m thinking the only way these people give up power is with some kind of amnesty. It’s how Russia got rid of the Soviets. But I say the only way we give them THAT is that they ADMIT to everything they did.
Thus, anything they admit to can’t be prosecuted, but OTOH they’ll never get back into power, and most fake journalists will lose their jobs.
And of course an amnesty won’t cover any *future* crimes on their part.
We keep a close eye on them. They won’t be able to stay clean.
This is the problem with amnesty. The psychopaths promise to be good and the victims believe them AGAIN.
Then, other psychopaths bring them out of retirement in secret.
Nope. Justice. Hebrew Scriptures type justice.
That just depends on HOW MANY psychopaths we are unaware of.
If “we have it all” then they are ALL under amnesty and bringing them out of retirement is a new crime and head-on-pike time.
I don’t believe we have it all in THAT global a sense. We might “have it all” on some of the big players.
Also, what they did is so bad that if it is publicized, some of these people might be offed by vigilantes, most will never work even as septic tank divers.
“I know this is considered sacrilegious on the right, but I’m thinking the only way these people give up power is with some kind of amnesty.”
Equal justice under Law.
No justice, no peace.
In that case, glad I’m prepared for war.
Corpses don’t require assent to “give up power” — it’s already gone. Russia wasn’t armed.
Those corpses wouldn’t all be the “bad guys”. A lot of innocent people, too.
All very sad. The Soviets and China did a hell of a job on our left. Amazing.
From the linked Life Site News article, Dr. Reisman was healthy, still working, and 85 years old.
My homeschool cohort, when i gently tried to tell her about spike protein, didnt really care. She said she feels fine and more free now. I said, this isnt a health freedom its political, but she said she is ok with it bc she gets to travel.
This all fine until complications and they will be the one crying the loudest. Funny people who got the shot feel empowered to be in an elite club. That is how people will get the vaccine to be special and above the other non vaccine group. We are being stratified.
If there is an elite club, it should be composed of those with natural immunity because they had the virus.
If it makes this any better, I sympathize with her, because I have felt the same way. Immunity has taken much of the post-COVID sting off my lungs. Very akin to Jenner’s own childhood variolation (smallpox inoculation) against smallpox, which was a far more damaging bout than cowpox. He was able to do all kinds of smallpox research BECAUSE he was immune both TO and FROM the disease.
I understand. The presumption tho, is political and mental, not physical recovery as you’ve experienced.
Yup. In her case, it’s exactly what the social engineers hoped for.
The truth will come out concerning vaccines. The Pop and other Hollywood cabal including Harry and his demented wife are in on pushing vaccine. Today on War Room.
I feel truth always wins over deception .
In the world of auditing, finance, accounting, and production numbers, you often encounter things that make you go, “hmmmmm”.
One such factoid was that 60% of the annual production of VHS tape during some year back in the 80’s……was used for porn.
Mind you, there was a lot of technology in VHS — from the usual tape movement, to the peculiar offset rotating read/write head. All this science, all this technology, all this tricky execution……for wankers.
I patronized a particular liquor store for cheap libations. They had a small section of porn tapes for aficionados…one day, I noted an owner unloading a large box onto the racks and made a comment about “restocking day”. He told me they did that every two weeks.
There is a vast river flowing beneath our feet, in catacombs unseen.
Porn, of course comes as pictures or video.
The old 2400 baud modems couldn’t download pictures fast enough…or they could, if the picture was wretched. The huge demand for porn no doubt hastened the development of faster comm. The process repeated with videos.
In “The IT Crowd”, there’s a funny bit where Roy is watching a picture download and is going, “nice eyebrows”…..”good chin”…..
There was a very old Dilbert where Wally proposes to test the network by downloading and streaming video files.
The last panel was him saying to Dilbert, “Damn, I came so close to making it my job to watch porn.”
So, the Fiancee was managing a Tech Support department….and it became known that one of her employees was wanking on the job.
And it fell to HR to view every link in his browser history to ensure it did not include child porn (which has mandatory disclosures under the law).
She (the HR lady) was not amused, not aroused, and largely disgusted….but checked every link because her job was to ensure the company avoided liability. Took her a little over a week.
Hell is watching someone else’s porn.
Well, it’s already against every policy in the book to look at ANY porn on the company computer system, most jobs at least. (Perhaps not if you work for playboy, penthouse, etc. though I imagine only allowed on break times.)
So if you gotta wank on the job, bring hard copies. I suppose.
This is so ridiculous it’s almost unbelievable. Maybe this happened along time ago, but it is NOT how it should be handled. Law enforcement should have been brought in to take possession of the computer and establish chain of custody. Then the computer is given to Forensic Analysis, if local law enforcement do not have a forensic analyst on staff, the FBI is called in. A forensic analyst will have programs to run on the hard drive that find any files that are porn, can identify any which are child porn, can find any that have been deleted, can find any partitions used to hide files, and do so without anyone having to view the files. Having HR view browser history is almost childishly simplistic and not likely to serve any purpose, she should have sued.
*shrugs* It was about 20 years ago, when we were all more naive.
*shrugs* Or unprofessional. These policies were in place where I worked in 2001.
Silicon Valley is the ultimate Year Zero kind of place.
This would be a good time for us all to pause a moment in prayer for the comfort of Plain Jane’s soul. Let her know we miss her, but will still get by.
I look forward to The Q++ Tree. It’s incentive to stay on track.
I’ll just drop this right here, was wonder how to segue into this but this is perfect.
Saw this ad a few weeks ago.Was actually looking into them as an option. These people have no fear of what there doing.
And of course no one seems to have a problem with they actually think it’s funny……
Funny…not. As you say, they have no fear. There is a concerted effort to normalize satan and abhorrent behavior.
Update on the Huepers who were SWATted by Alaska Airlines.
Great physics exposition today!
Interesting how things seemed so relatively simple by the last decade of the 1800s, when even though there were those little mysteries, which were temporarily solved by adding in things like Vulcan and the ether.
…..and, then, things went haywire…..
Indeed, only a few years later, that old reliable clockwork-like system, of orderly knowing what all was in the world, except for those small imperfections and mysteries, got turned on end, when researchers started looking closer at those imperfections and mysteries.
At best the older system was demoted to a special case suitable for most human-scale purposes. It had and has certainly proved its worth as the basis of civil and mechanical engineering throughout and since the industrial revolution, for machines and structures.
No, I won’t pre-empt the next installments in the series.
What is interesting is that similar changes from the old and stable to the new and unknown and scary were evident in other branches of science, notably psychology, and art. And politics, in the run-up to the world wars. It is as if there was a large-scale unease.
And let’s not neglect geology, which went through its Big Revolution in the early 1960s. A lot of people alive still remember that; heady times indeed.
Geology doesn’t make any damn sense without plate tectonics. Realizing it was happening answered so many old questions (e.g., why volcanoes are where they are) they must have been smacking their heads with glee. (As a kid I had a book that was maybe ten years old talking about how volcano placement was a mystery.)
OMG, this dude is hilarious and brilliant!
McInerney: image of Obama & Fauci in Wuhan Lab in 2015 – (We) Are The News (wearethene.ws)
McInerney: image of Obama & Fauci in Wuhan Lab in 2015
Post 51694 7 hours ago • View on 8kunMore McInerney:
[Here’s a coze little gp at the Wuhan Lab, one caption says 2015 – Fauci and Obama together on a tour?]
2015 was when Dr. Zheng-li Shi, the “Bat Lady” researcher at the Wuhan Institute of Virology, returned there from her “research period” at Ralph Baric’s lab at UNC, Chapel Hill, where they were working on Gain of Function viruses synthesized from the SARS-2 virus. Baric holds the patent on the SARS-2 variant.
Shi took her research materials with her.
Fauci’s NIAID, along with the NIH (under Dr. Francis Collins, who by the way, led the Human Genome Project), funded BOTH the Baric Lab AND the Wuhan lab.
Dora..so with your comment and eilert’s below
I continue to pray we reach globalist inspired fraud- fauci-virus, public herd awareness soon.
Maybe then justice will allow us to begin utilizing the city lamp posts mentioned earlier.
Wishing you a Beautiful day ! 😃
Jo biden didn’t win.
Very glad that somebody else recognized that variants can easily be accelerated and pinpointed by the ChiComs. I was suspicious of the South African variant from the beginning, due to the CCP-ANC axis being so strong, and ANC being so nearly 100% obedient to CCP.
It’s a great coinage, I agree.
Pithy, laser-focused, and all too true.
One of JHU’s fortes is PSYCHOLOGY.
I strongly suspect that this is a prime example of the DS trying to “get ahead” of the backlash – first acknowledge it (because it’s unavoidable), and then later try to spin / subvert / corrupt it, to minimize the impact.
They play both sides, and spend HUGE effort to co-opt the side they AREN’T on.
Like Fox …
JHU “groomed” both Gaga … AND Zuckbucks. Among others we’ve heard of, I’m sure.
“Gifted” program, now called CTY (was SMPY). Look it up.
Find superlative talent; assess psych vulnerability; exploit those exploitable.
Trap … and USE.
Interesting. JHU != MKU, so that means there’s >=2 of them.
Verse of the Day for Saturday, May 8, 2021
“But he was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities: the chastisement of our peace was upon him; and with his stripes we are healed.”
Isaiah 53:5 (KJV)
Thank You, Jesus, for blessings received and prayers answered!!!
BE MY VOICE
Thank YOU, Duchess. ❤
Most welcome, GMT!!!
Pgroup2, congratulations to you and your wife. In His love and blessings.
PRAYING ON THE ARMOR OF GOD
Father God, I now follow your command to put on the full armor of God, because my battle is not against flesh and blood but against rulers, authorities, the powers of this dark world and against spiritual forces of evil in the unseen world.
I first pray on the Belt of Truth that it may be buckled around my waist, may I be centered and encircled by your truth dear Lord. Hem me inside all that is true and right, and may I be protected and held up by the truth of your living word, in my Lord Jesus name.
I pray on the Breastplate of righteousness, please protect my vital organs and my inner man, cover my integrity, my spirit, and my soul. Guard my heart for it is the wellspring of life, please strengthen and guard the most vulnerable places in my life with that which is right, good, and noble that I might not receive a fatal blow from the enemy, in my Lord Jesus name.
I pray on the Gospel Shoes of Peace. I choose to stand in the shoes of your good news, and on the firm foundation of my Lord and Savior Jesus Christ, the solid eternal rock. All other ground is sinking sand, I pray that I will not slip or fall, but that my feet would be firmly fitted on your lordship, my Lord Jesus. I choose to stand on you, so that the peace of God, which transcends all understanding will guard my heart and mind in Christ Jesus, the eternal Rock of Ages. I receive your holy peace now my Lord, from the sole of my feet to the crown of my head, in my Lord Jesus name.
I pray the Shield of Faith into my hand now. As I take up the shield of faith, I ask that you might extinguish every dart and arrow, that is launched from the enemy to take me down spiritually, physically, mentally, emotionally, and every attempt of the enemy to destroy my joy. I ask that my faith in you would make it flame out. Extinguish every flaming arrow that would come against me, my life, my family, my home, or my ministry. May my faith always be out in front of me like a shield. Give me the courage to “faith my fears” by choosing to walk by faith and not by sight, in my Lord Jesus name.
I pray on the Helmet of Salvation, that you might protect my mind from the thoughts that can lead me astray. I choose to take every thought captive, and arrest all intentioned ideas and motives that would harm others, or distract me from your holy will for me. I submit every captured thought to the Lordship of my Lord Jesus Christ, and ask that you would imprison those thoughts that are not of you my Lord. Transform my mind and renew my thinking that I may think God thoughts, and have a sober mind that is focused on your glory. Please protect me from being double minded that I may allow my mind, I reject to live an earthly life, because I choose to live a holy one, governed by you My Lord Jesus, the prince of peace, please have my mind to be saturated with the holy mind of Christ, in my Lord Jesus name.
Finally, I take up the Sword of the Spirit which is the holy word of God, I pray this powerful offensive weapon into my hand, and ask that your holy word would be fitting for every encounter I face. As the enemy gets close to me, please give me the insight, wisdom, and skill to wield the word of God to drive away the enemy, in my Lord Jesus name.
May the enemy and his team flee from me, upon hearing the word of God spoken by the power and direction of the Holy Spirit. Give me the sword of the spirit to cut through the wiles of the devil, so that I may discern the schemes of the enemy when he is near.
With all kinds of prayers, supplication, and intercession I pray to you my Lord God as the one who fights my battles. Now that I’m in your holy powerful armor, I walk away covered and ready to face my day as you go before me, and please protect me in the midst of the spiritual warfare in this unseen world, in my Lord Jesus name.
Thank you my Lord, for the spiritual weapons of armor and prayer that you have given me. It is written no weapon formed against me shall prosper, and you will refute every tongue that accuses me.
Thank you Father God, my Lord Jesus and the Holy Spirit, that I am more than a conqueror in my Lord Jesus. I pray all of this in the mighty name of my Lord God and Savior Jesus Christ, amen.
Memes, memes, and more memes.
Dominion refuses to hand over the administration passwords. If I did that, I’d probably go to jail and someone would break in anyway.
Johns Hopkins Confirms: Self-Spreading Vaccines Are No Myth – is this legalized depopulation?
may 7, 2021 the marshall report
Now isn’t this special. Is this disinformation or real information. Discern, discern, discern. Nothing is as it appears should be our first response always. What do they have to gain by having people believe this new information? Will we now start some quarantines? Self imposed lockdowns…anger, frustration and even hate caused by our fear of those who took the vaccine? Good grief…here comes the witch hunt.
[Excerpt] Read more at the link above…
The idea of self-spreading vaccines is TERMINAL HUBRIS – particularly in the immediate and capsizing wake of our “full-idiot” (never go full idiot) full spike protein vaccines.
I highly recommend these tulip bulbs. So beautiful. I received some as a gift last mother’s day. Best gift ever.
flying my new flag high ❤ 👌 hit like if you agree with me
the flag available here for who want to order it
“It is the most urgent task we have before us because we have no more than three and a half years to save all that previous generations of Americans accomplished since the foundation of the nation. Our first deadline is less than a year from now. The midterm elections of 2022 will be the first chance the free people of the United States have to retrieve their liberties and halt the spread of autocracy. We can’t wait until November of 2022 to begin the task. The MAGA constituency or some variation of it must establish its hegemony in short order. Failure in 2022 would be a catastrophe. Failure in 2024 would spell doom for the nation.So how do we rescue the GOP from its feckless leaders? In the end, what is to be done?
Fortunately, Dan Schultz, a Republican activist from Arizona, has an answer. It is a simple strategy that he has dubbed “the Precinct Strategy” that any patriot can participate in. He points out that merely voting for Republicans give one no power over elected representatives. Likewise, merely registering as a Republican gives one no more leverage. Even donating to GOP candidates does little to influence them once in office. The ordinary Republican has little influence unless he is actively engaged in Republican politics at the local level. It’s the committeemen who have all the power and influence. Rank-and-file activists must become “Precinct Committeemen.”
Schultz explains that there are some 200,000 positions as precinct committeemen available in the party nationally, but only about 100,000 of those positions are filled. Half of them are vacant! As it is, the currently occupied positions are divided more or less evenly between moderates and conservative activists. That’s why we get such feckless leadership and such clueless politicians. But, as Schultz points out, if the 100,000 vacant positions were filled by conservatives, clueless moderates would be outnumbered roughly three to one!
Anyone can volunteer. It’s easy. Energetic patriots who understand that the fate of the nation depends on them could seize control of the party and select candidates who will determine the fate of the nation. So for all those who ask, “What can I do?,” please, go to this website and save the nation. Save freedom for your children, your grandchildren, and generations yet unborn.”
Trying to reply to DP, MagaMom, and Robert Baker about an article posted concerning a settlement agreement/ Arizona audit (got a comment failed to post pop up in my notifications).
(initial Link) :
(follow-up link) :
Cyber Ninjas respond to Democrat Party settlement letter: “Settlement changes nothing”.
The settlement changes nothing about the procedures going on at the audit.
It is a tool being used by enemies of transparent democracy to pursue a narrative undermining the most comprehensive election audit in American history, and to open more vectors to attempt to continue attacking it.
Their response also states that signature verification was never a part of their scope.🔻
isn’t that just like fake news? “They are no longer allowed to do signature matching” … they never were so all is continuing as it was … ??? so distraction and fake new
Keep your eyes on the prize !
The truth is coming out !
Speculation On the Maricopa Audit
AZ Vice Chair Pam Kirby’s tweet tonight (several posts prior https://s.w.org/images/core/emoji/13.0.1/svg/2b06.svg ) is very telling. Kirby said the Maricopa Board of Supervisors should assume the auditors have what they need. Her comments suggest that the Senate’s requests are merely an opportunity for the Board of Supervisors to get on the right side of this issue.
Somehow, they got the information they needed. Now, they’re offering the Board of Supervisors one last chance. One last chance for what? To avoid criminal prosecution?
The Board of Supervisors doesn’t want to disclose any more information. That’s why they had sheriff Penzone write his letter about the routers. But if the Board doesn’t provide the items mentioned in the subpoena, they face legal problems.
The auditors and the Senate are in the driver’s seat. They don’t need the passwords. They know why the county doesn’t have them. The County admitted that Dominion serves as the admin for the equipment.
If, as Kirby’s tweet impies, they have the information they were looking for, then they don’t need the routers, either.
The requests for passwords and routers are for the sake of optics. They want the public to know the Board of Supervisors was given an opportunity to come clean. (Notice that the requests and replies are immediately made public.)
Continued attempts by the Board of Supervisors to hide election data, the media’s attempts to discredit the audit, and the DOJ’s threat to interfere in the audit all point to the Senate being in control of the process.
Judging by the tone and content of messaging by the Senate leadership, it seems they already have enough information to know the likely outcome of the audit.
I think that the board of supervisors knows that they’re caught and are trying to create a narrative of plausible deniability for the purpose of damage control to save their own asses…
Fascinating, and I think you’re right.
Thank you Nor’easter. The creative writing teachers at the Journalism schools must be very proud of their former students. What grade did our indispensable fact checkers give on the original article?
1 more data point regarding the 2020 election
TN GOP State Executive Meeting today.
big topic is Mannis from Knoxville who voted Dem and donated to dems, then only months later was allowed to run as a GOP.
Should be interesting.
Election Fraud – The People Involved
Dr. Anthony Fauci
Chief Justice Roberts
Crime committed: Treason
Penalty if convicted: Death by firing squad
The question is who knows what.
So it’s going to hit sometime in the next 24 hours.
But they don’t know where.
Let’s hope it hits in the oceans somewhere.
Our nation stands at the crossroads of history and we face a very serious decision point in the life of our nation, The United States of America. If We The People don’t step up and place demands on ALL elected officials to discover the truth of this last election (3 NOV, 2020), we may never have another free and fair election for any elected office again. This is not a political party issue, this is an American issue. Free and fair elections represent the essence of democracy and many thousands of Americans have fought and died for us all to be free and able to vote as equals…one person, one vote. All of us in living legally in the United States of America are created equal in the eyes of God
This was very interesting. Thank you for explaining things so systematically & w/ the helpful illustrations. It helps my sleep-deprived, tax-assaulted mind mostly “get” it 🙂
I’m presuming the sound wave concept you were alluding to was Doppler. I’ve encountered Doppler a couple of times in medical situations. When pregnant w/ the twins at 33 weeks gestation upon seeing a high risk OB/neonatologist he did Doppler blood flow studies on the umbilical cords & determined from that (& other data) that Twin B (who was Josiah) needed to be gotten out “before he dies”, so I was induced at 33 1/2 weeks.
Because my son has some congenital heart (birth defect) issues he continues to be monitored by Pediatric Cardiology. About every couple years they do an echo-cardiogram to check the status of his various structural anomalies. Usually part of that echo involves Doppler imaging on the blood flow. They often position the monitor screen so Josiah &/or I can view what’s being imaged. The Doppler would appear to be oriented on the z-axis as the color is one way when the blood is moving toward us & another way when it’s moving away. This is an interesting phenomenon to observe as a lay-person & the math involved would likely keep you “entertained” for a while!
Josiah’s overdue for that Echo & Peds cardio visit, but they’re scheduled for later this month. It’s also time to schedule a return visit to Neurosurgery to make sure his brain tumor has not regrown. I think the last time he was scheduled in that N clinic it happened to fall on the day of his Liver Transplant & the Neurosurgeon who did his Transphenoidal Resection of the Pituitary Adenoma still met w/ me in the hallway (it couldn’t be an official visit w/out the actual patient present) to get an update on Josiah’s complex adventures.
We’ve come a long way! Oh, I’ve seen some of the computer imagery of the brain scans, MRI’s iirc, but I don’t know if they also use Doppler. They show us those images on the clinic computers & use the mouse to scroll through the brain also seemingly along the z-axis. Very interesting stuff–especially when there’s no re-grown tumor (just a little “scar tissue” that lightens the image where the tumor used to be)!
Yep, it’s Doppler, first noticed in train whistles, and a very useful phenomenon.
Worth a post in and of itself, and I might just do one as part of this series even though it doesn’t directly go towards where I want to go.
However you decide to approach it (or not) it will be highly readable & interesting. Had you been teaching one of my physics classes back in the day I might have actually Gotten that subject!
The free ride is ending in Florida. Glad to see this from the govonor who’s always the first one who takes action.
I gotta brag on my Governor Gianforte of Montana here. This time, he was first. But DeSantis rocks, no doubt.
Its past time. The sooner they get to work the sooner blm and aunty fah have no playtime.
Babylon Bee again:
Bad Dog! Major Biden Gives Nuclear Codes To China In Exchange For A Milk-Bone | The Babylon Bee
Haaaaa. 😄 😆
Every day Caturday!
Well, that didn’t work. It’s a cat greeting a returning serviceman. I embedded the code. 😒
Oh… didn’t know… thought it was about this…
Not even four months and they were giving away the store, but Dems gotta do what Dems gotta do which is Make America Weak.
HEYDONMUSICPAGE/ “HAVE A GREAT WEEKEND” 5.8.2021
LIVE: AMERICA FIRST RALLY WITH REP. GAETZ AND REP. GREENE IN THE VILLAGES, FL 5/7/21
by RSBN May 7, 2021
Duchess posted on this via Sgt Reports a week or so back, It looks about the same though.
Secret, Leaked Speech by Chinese Defense Minister Demonstrates China’s Intent to Destroy AmericaSubmitted by Dave Hodges on Wednesday, July 10, 2019 – 13:04.
Intro and Highlights.
“The central committee believes, as long as we resolve the United States problem at one blow, our domestic problems will all be readily solved. Therefore, our military battle preparation appears to aim at Taiwan, but in fact is aimed at the United States, and the preparation is far beyond the scope of attacking aircraft carriers or satellites.
– Chinese Defense Minister Gen. Wei Fenghe
China Is Not, Never Has Been, Or Will Ever Be an American AllyThe Chinese View Themselves as the Master Race on the PlanetTHE CHINESE MODEL FOR EXPANSION IS BASED UPON NAZI GERMANY WITH ONE EXCEPTION
Leaked Document Shows Chinese Intent to Commit Mass American Genocide Followed the Occupation of AmericaSubmitted by Dave Hodges on Friday, July 12, 2019 – 12:31.
This is Part II and Highlights these areas.
The Main Motivation for Aggressive Chinese Military PolicyWeapons of Choice to be Used Against AmericaBiological, Genetic Weapons Will Be the Weapons of ChoiceAn Additional Motive for the Chinese to AttackCONCLUSION
This is where I am with the left and the ghetto. From Jovan Hutton Pulitzer.
Did you use the ‘Attach an image’ icon that’s in the lower r/h corner of the comment box?
Because…yeah, it does that.
It just attaches them to the bottom — and it even miniaturizes them too.
It’s better than nothing, though.
I wish it would embed images in the comment box.
Yes I did. It’s a quirky little function isn’t it? But you can click the image for the huge version. 😄
You can also right-click the image, get the URL, and use it inline: